WORDS OF ART= 

The vocabulary or terminology of a particular art, science, or profession, particularly those expressions that are peculiar to it.

 Though a society may share a common language, there are many specialized uses of words based on human activities. An examination of any profession, for example, will yield many expressions that are idiomatic or peculiar to it. For the person working within the profession, these become words of art, which usually convey a meaning much different from the normal use of these words, or which may be completely baffling to an outsider.

Because the law is based on the expression of language, it contains thousands of words of art. Many persons working outside the legal profession would recognize that “taking the Fifth” means that a person is asserting his or her protection against Self-Incrimination under the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. However, very few persons would understand that an appellant is the party bringing an appeal, while a respondent is the party against whom the appeal is taken. Appellant and respondent are words of art.

 

WORDS OF ART KEYWORDS



WORDS OF ART=n

SPECIALIZED LANGUAGE WITH MEANING PECULIAR TO A PARTICULAR PROFESSION, ART, TECHNICAL WORK, SCIENCE OR OTHER FIELD OF ENDEAVOR.
JARGON KNOWN ONLY TO PEOPLE WHO SPECIALIZE IN A PARTICULAR OCCUPATION, SUCH AS POLITICS.

illuminati=
PERSONS PROFESSING, POSSESSING, OR CLAIMING TO POSSESS SUPERIOR ENLIGHTENMENT.
A NAME GIVEN TO DIFFERENT RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES OR SECTS BECAUSE OF THEIR CLAIM TO SUPERIOR ENLIGHTENMENT.
illuminati=IS A NAME GIVEN TO PERSONS PROFESSING, POSSESSING, OR CLAIMING TO POSSESS SPECIAL SPIRITUAL, INTELLECTUAL, OR SUPERIOR ENLIGHTENMENT.

ENLIGHTENMENT=
THE ACT OF ENLIGHTENING OR THE STATE OF BEING ENLIGHTENED.
TO GIVE INTELLECTUAL OR SPIRITUAL LIGHT TO:
INSTRUCT; IMPART KNOWLEDGE TO.
TO SHED LIGHT UPON.


DEED OF COVENANT=

A Deed of Covenant is a form of legal Deed, in which a party legally promises to carry out the obligations, and terms, stipulated therein. … When executed, Deeds of Covenant are also legally binding.

SUPERIOR OFFICER=
means any officer or serviceman who, in relation to any other officer or serviceman, is by this Act or by regulations made thereunder or by custom of the Service, authorized to give a lawful command to that other officer or serviceman;

CONSULTANT=
means a professional who can study, design, organize, evaluate and manage projects or assess, evaluate and provide specialist advice or give technical assistance for making or drafting policies, institutional reforms and includes private entities, consulting firms, legal advisors, engineering firms, construction managers, management firms, procurement agents, inspection agents, auditors, international and multinational organizations, investment and merchant banks, universities, research institutions, government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and individuals; Consultant means any individual who is engaged by the Company or any Affiliate to render consulting or advisory services.

 

VIOLATION=
INFRINGEMENT OR BREACH, FLAGRANT DISREGARD OR NON-OBSERVANCE, OF SOME PRINCIPLE OR STANDARD OF CONDUCT OR PROCEDURE, AS AN OATH (OATH OF OFFICE -PROMISSORY OATH, PROMISE), LAW, ETC.; AN INSTANCE OF THIS.
THE ACTION OF VIOLATING.

OATH OF OFFICE=
A SWORN PROMISE TO CARRY OUT THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF A POSITION, DILIGENTLY AND AS REQUIRED BY LAW.

IMPERATOR NON POTEST PECCARE=
THE EMPEROR CAN DO NO WRONG.

IMPERATOR SEMPER RECTUM EST=
THE EMPEROR IS ALWAYS RIGHT.

SOCIO-POLITICAL PARTICIPATION=
MEANS THAT A PERSON PARTICIPATING IN THE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PROCESS BY MAKING HIS/HER BELIEFS KNOWN. OFTEN USED TO DESCRIBE AN ACTION TAKEN BY A CITIZEN TO INFLUENCE THE OUTCOME OF A POLITICAL ISSUE.

EFFECTUAL=
(of documents, agreements, oaths, etc.) valid and binding and having legal force.

MAGNILOQUENT=

LOFTY OR GRANDIOSE IN SPEECH OR EXPRESSION; USING A HIGH-FLOWN STYLE OF DISCOURSE; BOMBASTIC.

MILITIAMAN=
Under the law of war, a state may incorporate a paramilitary organization or armed agency (such as a national police, a private volunteer militia) into its combatant armed forces. Militias thus can be military or paramilitary, depending on the instance. Some of the contexts in which the term “militia” is used include:Forces engaged in defense activity or service, to protect a community, its territory, property, and laws.

ACCEDE=
1. TO GIVE CONSENT, APPROVAL, OR ADHERENCE; AGREE; ASSENT; TO ACCEDE TO A REQUEST; TO ACCEDE TO THE TERMS OF A CONTRACT.
2. TO ATTAIN OR ASSUME AN OFFICE, TITLE, OR DIGNITY; SUCCEED (USUALLY FOLLOWED BY TO): TO ACCEDE TO THE THRONE.
3. INTERNATIONAL LAW. TO BECOME A PARTY TO AN AGREEMENT, TREATY, OR THE LIKE, BY WAY OF ACCESSION.
4. TO ASSENT OR GIVE ONE’S CONSENT; AGREE.
5. TO ENTER UPON OR ATTAIN (TO AN OFFICE, RIGHT, ETC): THE PRINCE ACCEDED TO THE THRONE.
6. (INTERNATIONAL LAW) TO BECOME A PARTY (TO AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN NATIONS, ETC), AS BY SIGNING A TREATY.
7. TO GIVE ONE’S CONSENT, OFTEN AT THE INSISTENCE OF ANOTHER: ACCEDE TO A DEMAND.
8. TO ARRIVE AT OR COME INTO AN OFFICE OR DIGNITY: ACCEDE TO THE THRONE.
9. TO BECOME A PARTY TO AN AGREEMENT OR TREATY.
10. TO ASSENT OR GIVE ONE’S CONSENT; AGREE
11. TO ENTER UPON OR ATTAIN (TO AN OFFICE, RIGHT, ETC): THE PRINCE ACCEDED TO THE THRONE.
12. (LAW) INTERNATIONAL LAW TO BECOME A PARTY (TO AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN NATIONS, ETC), AS BY SIGNING.
13. TO GIVE ONE’S CONSENT, APPROVAL, OR ADHERENCE BY YIELDING; GIVE IN; AGREE; ASSENT: TO ACCEDE TO A REQUEST; TO ACCEDE TO THE TERMS OF A CONTRACT.
14. TO ATTAIN OR ASSUME AN OFFICE, TITLE, OR DIGNITY; SUCCEED (USU. FOL. BY TO): TO ACCEDE TO THE THRONE.

15. TO BECOME A PARTY TO AN AGREEMENT OR TREATY.


AUTHORITATIVE=
HAVING OR PROCEEDING FROM AUTHORITY; OFFICIAL.
ENTITLED TO CREDIT OR ACCEPTANCE.
DICTATORIAL, PEREMPTORY.

SWORN MAN=
A MAN BOUND BY OATH TO THE PERFORMANCE OF A DUTY OR OFFICE.
A MAN BOUND AND EMPOWERED BY OATH.

GMBE=
GRAND MASTER OF THE ORDER OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE.

OBLIGATION=
THE ACT OF BINDING ONESELF OR BEING BOUND BY LEGAL, MORAL, SOCIAL OR POLITICAL TIE.
A DUTY, CONTRACT, OATH, PROMISE, PLEDGE OR ANY OTHER LEGAL, MORAL, POLITICAL OR SOCIAL REQUIREMENT THAT COMPELS ONE TO FOLLOW OR AVOID A CERTAIN COURSE OF ACTION.
A COURSE OF ACTION IMPOSED BY LAW, SOCIETY OR CONSCIENCE BY WHICH ONE IS BOUND OR RESTRICTED.
THE CONSTRAINING POWER OF A LAW, OATH, PROMISE, PLEDGE, CONTRACT, OR SENSE OF DUTY.
(LAW) A LEGAL AGREEMENT STIPULATING A SPECIFIED PAYMENT OR ACTION, ESPECIALLY IF THE AGREEMENT ALSO SPECIFIES THE PENALTY FOR FAILURE TO COMPLY.
THE DOCUMENT CONTAINING THE TERMS OF SUCH AN AGREEMENT.
SOMETHING OWED AS PAYMENT OR IN RETURN FOR SPECIAL SERVICE OR FAVOUR.
THE SERVICE OR FAVOUR FOR WHICH ONE IS INDEBTED TO ANOTHER.
THE STATE, FACT OR CONDITION OF BEING INDEBTED TO ANOTHER FOR A SPECIAL SERVICE OR FAVOUR RECEIVED.

GRANT=
TO CONSENT TO PERFORM OR FULFILL.

REX NON POTEST PECCARE=
Sovereign immunity, or crown immunity, is a legal doctrine by which the sovereign or state cannot commit a legal wrong and is immune from civil suit or criminal prosecution. This principle is commonly expressed by the popular legal maxim rex non potest peccare, meaning “the king can do no wrong.”

NOTEWORTHY=
DESERVING NOTICE OR ATTENTION; NOTABLE, REMARKABLE.

SENSE OF DUTY=
RECOGNITION OR AWARENESS OF MORAL ISSUES AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO ONE’S OWN CONDUCT.

VERIFY=
TO CONFIRM AND SUBSTANTIATE IN LAW BY OATH.

POLITICAL PRISONER=
SOMEONE IMPRISONED FOR HOLDING, EXPRESSING, OR ACTING IN ACCORD WITH PARTICULAR POLITICAL BELIEFS.

MAJESTIC=
HAVING OR SHOWING LOFTY DIGNITY OR NOBILITY; STATELY.
HAVING OR DISPLAYING MAJESTY OR GREAT DIGNITY; GRAND; LOFTY.
CHARACTERIZED BY OR POSSESSING MAJESTY; LOFTY OR IMPOSING; GRAND.
HAVING OR DISPLAYING GREAT DIGNITY OR NOBILITY.
BELONGING TO OR BEFITTING A SUPREME RULER.

SUBLIME=
OF HIGH SPIRITUAL, MORAL, OR INTELLECTUAL WORTH.
NOT TO BE EXCELLED; SUPREME.
INSPIRING AWE; IMPRESSIVE.
OF HIGH MORAL, AESTHETIC, INTELLECTUAL, OR SPIRITUAL VALUE; NOBLE; EXALTED.
INSPIRING DEEP VENERATION, AWE, OR UPLIFTING EMOTION BECAUSE OF ITS BEAUTY, NOBILITY, GRANDEUR, OR IMMENSITY.
ELEVATED OR LOFTY IN THOUGHT, LANGUAGE, ETC.
IMPRESSING THE MIND WITH A SENSE OF GRANDEUR OR POWER; INSPIRING AWE, VENERATION, ETC.
SUPREME OR OUTSTANDING.
THE GREATEST OR SUPREME DEGREE.
WORTHY OF ADORATION OR REVERENCE.


ADJURE=
TO CHARGE, BIND, OR COMMAND EARNESTLY AND SOLEMNLY, OFTEN UNDER OATH OR THE THREAT OF A PENALTY.
TO COMMAND, OFTEN BY EXACTING AN OATH; CHARGE.

HEGEMONY=

LEADERSHIP OR DOMINANCE, ESPECIALLY BY ONE STATE OR SOCIAL GROUP OVER OTHERS.

NEW WORLD ORDER=
WORLD RULE BY THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE ORDER OF RANK OR PREFERANCE.

SCHOOL OF THOUGHT=
A BELIEF OR (SYSTEM OF BELIEFS) ACCEPTED AS AUTHORITATIVE BY SOME GROUP OR SCHOOL.
A NUMBER OF PEOPLE WHO SHARE AN OPINION, BELIEF OR VIEW.

OUTSTANDING=

MARKED BY SUPERIORITY OR DISTINCTION; EXCELLENT; DISTINGUISHED: AN OUTSTANDING PARLIAMENTARY LOBBYIST.


PROMISE=
TO MAKE PROMISE OF; TO GIVE VERBAL ASSURANCE OF; TO UNDERTAKE OR ENGAGE, BY WORD OR WRITING ADDRESSED TO ANOTHER PERSON TO DO SOME SPECIFIED ACT.
A DECLARATION OR ASSURANCE MADE TO ANOTHER PERSON WITH RESPECT TO THE FUTURE, BY WHICH A PERSON UNDERTAKES A COMMITMENT STATING THAT ONE WILL DO SOME SPECIFIED ACT OR GIVES A GUARANTEE THAT A SPECIFIED THING WILL BE DONE, ETC.

PROMISSORY=
CONTAINING, RELATING TO, OR HAVING THE NATURE OF A PROMISE.
OF THE NATURE OF A PROMISE.

FEASANCE=
(LAW) THE EXECUTION OF AN OBLIGATION OR DUTY.
THE DOING OR PERFORMING OF AN ACT, AS OF A CONDITION OR DUTY.
(LAW) THE PERFORMANCE OF AN ACT, CONDITION, OBLIGATION, ETC.
(LAW) THE PERFORMING OF AN ACT, ESPECIALLY OUT OF ONE’S DUTY

NON-FEA´SANCE=
(LAW) AN OMISSION OR NEGLECT TO DO SOMETHING, ESP. THAT WHICH OUGHT TO HAVE BEEN DONE. CF. MALFEASANCE.

VOTIVE=
OFFERED, GIVEN, UNDERTAKEN, PERFORMED OR DEDICATED IN FULFILMENT OF OR IN ACCORDANCE WITH A VOW.

AGREEMENT=
A PROPERLY EXECUTED AND LEGALLY BINDING CONTRACT, OATH, OR PROMISE.

GRANT=
TO CONSENT TO CARRY OUT OR FULFILL. (THE TERMS OF AN OATH).

SWEAR=
PROMISE OR UNDERTAKE ON OATH TO PERFORM.
TO PROMISE OR UNDERTAKE SOMETHING BY AN OATH,

TAKE AN OATH BY WAY OF SOLEMN PROMISE OR UNDERTAKING.
TO BIND/BOUND BY OATH.

SWEAR TO =
TO PROMISE OR UNDERTAKE WITH SOLEMN OATH.

UNDERTAKE=
TAKE ON (AN OBLIGATION, DUTY, TASK, ETC..; COMMIT ONESELF TO PERFORM; BEGIN AN UNDERTAKING.
GIVE A FORMAL PROMISE OR PLEDGE THAT; GUARANTEE, AFFIRM; VENTURE TO ASSERT.
BE SURETY FOR.

SURETY=
A PERSON WHO HAS CONTRACTED TO BE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANOTHER: ESPECIALLY A PERSON WHO ASSUMES ANY RESPONSIBILITY, DEBTS, OR OBLIGATIONS IN EVENT OF THE DEFAULT OF ANOTHER.
A PLEDGE OR FORMAL PROMISE MADE TO SECURE AGAINST LOSS DAMAGE, OR DEFAULT; A GUARANTEE OR SECURITY. SOMETHING BEYOND DOUBT:A CERTAINTY.

ALLEGIANCE=
ALLEGIANCE IN POLITICAL TERMS, THE TIE THAT BINDS AN INDIVIDUAL TO ANOTHER INDIVIDUAL OR INSTITUTION. THE TERM USUALLY REFERS TO A PERSON’S LEGAL OBLIGATION OF OBEDIENCE TO A GOVERNMENT IN RETURN FOR THE PROTECTION OF THAT GOVERNMENT.
LOYALTY, OR THE OBLIGATION OF LOYALTY AS TO A NATION, SOVEREIGN, PERSON, IDEA, OR CAUSE.

EX OFFICIO=

HOLDING A POSITION OR MEMBERSHIP DUE TO THE POWER OR INFLUENCE OF ONE’S OFFICE, WITHOUT THE NEED OF SPECIFIC AUTHORIZATION OR APPOINTMENT AND NOT BY ELECTION OR APPOINTMENT.

EX OFFICIO MEMBER=
AN EX OFFICIO MEMBER IS A MEMBER OF A BODY (A BOARD, COMMITTEE, COUNCIL, ETC.) WHO IS PART OF IT BY VIRTUE OF HOLDING ANOTHER OFFICE. THE TERM IS LATIN, MEANING LITERALLY “FROM THE OFFICE”, AND THE SENSE INTENDED IS “BY RIGHT OF OFFICE”; ITS USE DATES BACK TO THE ROMAN REPUBLIC.
A COMMON MISCONCEPTION IS THAT THE PARTICIPATORY RIGHTS OF EX OFFICIO MEMBERS ARE LIMITED BY THEIR STATUS. THIS IS INCORRECT, ALTHOUGH THEIR RIGHTS MAY BE INDEED LIMITED BY THE BY-LAWS OF A PARTICULAR BODY. ROBERT’S RULES OF ORDER NEWLY REVISED CLARIFIES THAT THE TERM DENOTES ONLY HOW ONE BECOMES A MEMBER OF A GROUP, NOT WHAT ONE’S RIGHTS ARE. IT IS A METHOD OF SITTING ON A BOARD OR COMMITTEE, NOT A CLASS OF MEMBERSHIP. EX OFFICIO MEMBERS WILL FREQUENTLY ABSTAIN FROM VOTING, HOWEVER UNLESS THE BY-LAWS CONSTRAIN THEIR RIGHTS, THEY ARE AFFORDED THE SAME RIGHTS AS OTHER MEMBERS, E.G. DEBATING, MAKING FORMAL MOTIONS, AND VOTING.

OVERRIDING=
HAVING A SUPERIOR CLAIM TO;
BE MORE IMPORTANT THAN ALL OTHERS: THIS COMMITTMENT SHOULD OVERRIDE ALL OTHER CONSIDERATIONS.

PEACE OCCUPATION=
PEACEFUL OCCUPATION IS ONE OF THE METHODS OF LEGALLY ACQUIRING TERRITORY, PROVIDED THE OCCUPIER CAN SHOW A STANDARD OF CONTROL SUPERIOR TO THAT OF ANY OTHER CLAIMANT.

JUSTIFICATION=
A FACT, CIRCUMSTANCE, OR EVIDENCE THAT JUSTIFIES; A GROUND FOR DEFENCE.

JUSTIFY=
TO DEMONSTRATE OR PROVE TO BE JUST, RIGHT, VALID.
TO PROVE TO BE QUALIFIED TO ACT A SURETY.

ONE WORLD GOVERNMENT=
GOVERNMENTS BY A PREVAILING GOVERNMENT.

PARTY-GOVERNMENT=
GOVERNMENT BY A PREVAILING POLITICAL PARTY.

PROMISSORY OATH=
WHICH GUARANTEES A FUTURE ACTION.

JURAT=
A PERSON WHO HAS TAKEN AN OATH OR/AND WHO PERFORMS A DUTY ON OATH.

JUROR=
A PERSON TAKING AN OATH, ESPECIALLY ONE OF ALLEGIANCE.

OFFICE=
A POSITION OF AUTHORITY.
A DUTY OR FUNCTION ASSIGNED TO OR ASSUMED BY SOMEONE.

PROMISE=
A DECLARATION OR ASSURANCE BY WHICH A PERSON UNDERTAKES A COMMITMENT TO DO A SPECIFIED ACT AND GIVES A GUARANTEE THAT A SPECIFIED THING WILL HAPPEN, BE DONE, IMPLEMENTED, EXECUTED, ETC.

PLEBISCITE=
A PUBLIC REFERENDUM OR VOTE BY THE POPULATION OF A TERRITORY TO DETERMINE ITS CHOICE OF A SOVEREIGN OR A *CESSION OF TERRITORY TO ANOTHER STATE.

PROMISSORY OATH=
WHICH GUARANTEES A FUTURE ACTION.

WORLD COMMUNITY=
IMPLES THAT ‘FREE’ NATIONS ARE BOUND TOGETHER IN PURSUIT OF FREEDOM, PEACE AND MORALITY AS A “WORLD COMMUNITY.”

SYNARCHY=
JOINT RULE OR GOVERNMENT BY TWO OR MORE INDIVIDUALS OR PARTIES (JOINT SOVEREIGNTY).

OFFICIAL SECRET=
A PIECE OF INFORMATION THAT IS IMPORTANT FOR NATIONAL SECURITY AND IS OFFICIALLY CLASSIFIED AS CONFIDENTIAL.

STAFF OFFICER=
A MILITARY OFFICER SERVING ON THE STAFF OF A MILITARY HEADQUARTERS OR GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT.

JUST=
LEGALLY VALID OR CORRECT.
LAWFUL (JUST TITLE) JUST OATH.
SUITABLE (FITTING)
WELLFOUNDED: JUSTIFIED: LEGITAMATE.

JUSTICE=
THE QUALTY OF BEING JUST, FAIR OR IN CONFORMITY WITH WHAT IS RIGHT OR LEGAL. FAIR HANDLING. DUE REWARD OR TREATMENT.
THE ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE OF THE LAW
TO RECOGNIZE THE JUSTICE OF THE CASE.

PROVE=
TO ESTABLISH THE TRUTH OR VALIDITY OF BY PRESENTATION OF ARGUMENT OR EVIDENCE.
(LAW)= TO ESTABLISH THE AUTHENTICITY OF AN OATH.

PRESSURE GROUP=
AN INTEREST GROUP OF PEOPLE ORGANISED TO ALERT AND INFLUENCE POLICY, PUBLIC OPINION, LEGISLATOR, ETC, TO A PARTICULAR AREA OF INTEREST BY WRITING TO IMPORTANT PEOPLE.
A GROUP THAT TRIES TO INFLUENCE GOVERNMENTS OR OTHER ORGANIZATION ESPECIALLY BY HOLDING PUBLIC MEETING AND TALKING AND WRITING TO IMPORTANT PEOPLE ABOUT THEIR CAUSE.

SPECIAL INTEREST GROUP=
A GROUP OF PEOPLE OR AN ORGANISATION SEEKING OR RECEIVING SPECIAL ADVANTAGES, TYPICALLY THROUGH POLITICAL LOBBYING.

MASTER PLAN=
 A COMPREHENSIVE PLAN OF ACTION.

BLOC=
A GROUP OF PERSONS, PARTIES, OR NATIONS UNITED FOR COMMON ACTION OR BY A COMMON INTEREST.

VERIFY=
TO AFFIRM FORMALLY OR UNDER OATH.

AUTHENTIC=
EXECUTED WITH DUE PROCESS OF THE LAW (AN AUTHENTIC DEED OR OATH)

PUBLIC AUTHORITY=
ANY PERSON CERTAIN OF WHOSE FUNCTIONS ARE FUNCTIONS OF A PUBLIC NATURE.

BOND=
A BINDING AGREEMENT: A COVENANT.
THE DUTY, PROMISE, OR OBLIGATION BY WHICH ONE IS BOUND: TO TRUST A MAN ON HIS OATH OR BOND.

BOSSISM=
THE DOMINATION OF A POLITICAL ORGANIZATION BY A POLITICAL BOSS.

BOUND=
UNDER LEGAL OR MORAL OBLIGATION; UNDER OATH: BOUND BY HIS PROMISE.

CHARISMA=
AN EXCEPTIONAL ABILITY TO ATTRACT AND INFLUENCE OTHERS; MARKED PERSONAL CHARM OR MAGNETISM.

MATTER OF RECORD=
A THING THAT IS ESTABLISHED AS A FACT THROUGH BEING OFFICIALLY RECORDED.

MASTER WORK=
A MASTERPIECE.

MAGNUM OPUS=
A WORK OF ART, MUSIC, OR LITERATURE THAT IS REGARDED AS THE MOST IMPORTANT OR BEST WORK THAT AN ARTIST, COMPOSER, OR WRITER HAS PRODUCED.

EMINENCE GRISE=
A PERSON WHO EXERCISES POWER OR INFLUENCE WITHOUT HOLDING AN OFFICIAL POSITION.

RECOGNIZED=
TO IDENTIFY AS SOMETHING OR SOMEONE PREVIOUSLY SEEN, KNOWN, ETC.
TO IDENTIFY FROM KNOWLEDGE OF APPEARANCE OR CHARACTERISTICS.
TO PERCEIVE AS EXISTING OR TRUE: (REALIZED.)
TO ACKNOWLEDGE FORMALLY AS ENTITLED TO TREATMENT AS A POLITICAL UNIT.
TO ACKNOWLEDGE OR ACCEPT FORMALLY A SPECIFIED FACTUAL OR LEGAL SITUATION: (TO RECOGNIZE A SUCCESSFUL REVOLUTIONARY REGIME AS DE FACTO GOVERNMENT OF THE COUNTRY).

TO ACKNOWLEDGE OR TREAT AS VALID: (TO RECOGNIZE A CLAIM.)
TO SHOW APPRECIATION OF (ACHIEVEMENT, SERVICE, MERIT, ETC.)

IMPORTANT=
HAVING OR SUGGESTING A CONSCIOUSNESS OF HIGH POSITION OR AUTHORITY.
OF A PERSON HAVING OR ABLE TO HAVE A MAJOR EFFECT.
OF CONSEQUENCE MOMENTOUS (OF PERSON).
HAVING POSITION OF AUTHORITY OR RANK.
OF CONSIDERABLE INFLUENCE OR AUTHORITY, AS A PERSON OR POSITION: AN IMPORTANT PROFESSOR.
POMPOUS IMPORTANCE.

LESE MAJESTY=
A CRIME, ESPECIALLY HIGH TREASON, COMMITTED AGAINST THE SOVEREIGN POWER.
AN OFFENSE THAT VIOLATES THE DIGNITY OF A RULER.
AN ATTACK ON ANY CUSTOM, INSTITUTION, BELIEF, ETC., HELD SACRED OR REVERED BY NUMBERS OF PEOPLE.
A CRIME THAT UNDERMINES THE OFFENDER’S GOVERNMENT.

ON/UPON/UNDER OATH=
UNDER THE OBLIGATION OF AN OATH; AS HAVING MADE AN OATH.
BOUND BY AN OATH.

POMPOUS=
MAGNIFICENT SPLENDID SHOWING SELF-IMPORTANCE OF (LANGUAGE).
CHARACTERIZED BY OSTENTATIOUS DISPLAY OF DIGNITY OR IMPORTANCE.
INFLATED POMPOSITY.

TO BE OBLIGED=
TO BE BOUND BY A LEGAL OR MORAL TIE.

ARTIST=
ONE WHO CREATES A WORK OF ART.
ANYONE WHOSE WORK SHOWS SKILL, IMAGINATION, OR OTHER ARTISTIC QUALITIES.

ASCENDANT=
DOMINANT IN POSITION OR INFLUENCE: SUPERIOR.

ASTRICT=
TO BIND, ESPECIALLY BY MORAL OR LEGAL OBLIGATIONS.

BIND=
TO COMPEL, OBLIGE, OR UNITE, AS WITH A SENSE OF MORAL DUTY.
TO PLACE UNDER LEGAL OBLIGATION BY CONTRACT OR OATH.

THE PRETENDER=
A PRETENDER IS AN ASPIRANT OR CLAIMANT TO AN ABOLISHED THRONE OR TO A THRONE ALREADY OCCUPIED BY SOMEONE ELSE.

FIGURA=
(IN LITERARY THEORY) A PERSON OR THING REPRESENTING OR SYMBOLIZING A FACT OR IDEAL.

BIND OVER=
(LAW) = TO PLACE UNDER A LEGAL OBLIGATION.

SOLDIERY=
SOLDIERS COLLECTIVELY. MILITARY KNOWLEDGE.

PREROGATIVE=
A RIGHT OR PRIVILEGE EXCLUSIVE TO A PARTICULAR INDIVIDUAL OR CLASS.

ROYAL PREROGATIVE=
THE RIGHT OF THE SOVEREIGN, WHICH IN BRITISH LAW IS THEORETICALLY SUBJECT TO NO RESTRICTION.
A FACULTY OR PROPERTY DISTINGUISHING A PERSON OR CLASS.
(LAW BRIT) ARISING FROM THE PREROGATIVE OF THE CROWN (USUALLY DELEGATED TO THE GOVERNMENT OR THE JUDICIARY) AND BASED IN COMMON LAW RATHER THAN STATUTORY LAW.

PREROGATIVE OF MERCY=
THE RIGHT AND POWER OF A SOVEREIGN, STATE PRESIDENT, OR OTHER SUPREME AUTHORITY TO COMMUTE A DEATH SENTENCE, TO CHANGE THE MODE OF EXECUTION, OR TO PARDON AN OFFENDER.
THE POWER OF THE CROWN ON THE HOME SECRETARY’S ADVICE TO PARDON A CRIMINAL OFFENCE ABSOLUTELY AND THEREBY RELIEVING THE DEFENDANT OF ALL THE CONSEQUENCES OF CONVICTION, TO COMMUTE A SENTENCE TO A MILDER FORM, OR TO REMIT A SENTENCE IN PART.

PROGENITOR=
A PERSON WHO ORIGINATES AN ARTISTIC, INTELLECTUAL OR POLITICAL MOVEMENT.

OBLIGABLE=
ABLE TO BE BROUGHT, OR CAPABLE OF BRINGING, UNDER OBLIGATION.

OBLIGANT=
A PERSON WHO BINDS HIMSELF OR HERSELF, OR IS LEGALLY BOUND, TO PAY OR PERFORM SOMETHING.

OBLIGATE=
BOUND BY OATH, LAW, OR DUTY; OBLIGED.

STATUS=
A PERSON LEGAL STANDING OR CAPACITY.

ROYALIST=
A SUPPORTER OF GOVERNMENT BY A MONARCHY.

PER INCURIAM=
(LATIN) THROUGH LACK OF CARE, A DECISION OF COURT IS MADE PER INCURIAM IF IT FAILS TO APPLY A RELEVANT STATUTORY PROVISION OR IGNORES A BINDING PRECEDENT. IN CRIMINAL CASES A DECISION MADE PER INCURIAM WILL USUALLY RESULT IN THER CONVICTION BEING QUASHED.

SUI GENERIS=
BEING THE ONLY EXAMPLE OF ITS KIND; UNIQUE.

MAGNIFICENT=
GRAND OR NOBLE IN THOUGHTS OR DEEDS; EXALTED.

TO BE BOUND=
TO BE UNDER OBLIGATION, TO HAVE IT AS A DUTY, MORAL OR LEGAL TO DO SOMETHING.

RIGHT OF ACTION=
THE RIGHT TO TAKE A PARTICULAR CASE TO COURT.
A CHOSE IN ACTION.

CONSENT=
DELIBERATE OR IMPLIED AFFIRMATION: COMPLIANCE WITH A COURSE OF PROPOSED ACTION.

ASSESSOR=
A PERSON CALLED IN TO ASSIST A COURT IN TRYING A CASE REQUIRING SPECIALIZE TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE.

BIND=
TO TIE (A PERSON OR ONESELF) UP IN RESPECT TO ACTION; TO OBLIGE BY A COVENANT, OATH, PROMISE OR VOW.
TO AGREE, PLEDGE ONESELF.

BOUND=
UNDER LEGAL OR MORAL OBLIGATION UNDER OATH, CONTRACT:BOUND BY HIS PROMISE.

OBLIGEE=
A PERSON WHO IS UNDER OBLIGATION TO ANOTHER.
(LAW)= A PERSON TO WHOM ANOTHER IS BOUND BY CONTRACT OR LEGAL AGREEMENT.

APPOINTEE=
A PERSON IN WHOSE FAVOUR A POWER OF APPOINTMENT IS EXERCISED.
A PERSON SELECTED FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

PRIVILEGED COMMUNICATION=
A CONFIDENTIAL OFFICIAL COMMUNICATION THAT MAY BE WITHHELD FROM PRODUCTION IN COURTS PROCEEDINGS BECAUSE DISCLOSURE OF ITS CONTENTS WOULD BE AGAINST THE PUBLIC INTEREST.

BOND=
A BINDING AGREEMENT; AN OATH.
THE DUTY, PROMISE, OR OBLIGATION BY WHICH ONE IS BOUND.
A CONSTRAINING FORCE OR TIE ACTING UPON THE MIND AND RECOGNISED BY IT AS OBLIGATORY.
AN AGREEMENT OR ENGAGEMENT BINDING ON HIM WHO MAKES IT.

TO ENTER BONDS=
TO GIVE A BOND ; (PLEDGE ONESELF)

BONDED=
HELD, PLEDGED, OR CONFIRMED BY BOND.

ADVENTIST=
A MEMBER OF A CHRISTIAN GROUP WHICH BELIEVES THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST WILL HAPPEN SOON.

PROPOSITUS=
THE PERSON IMMEDIATELY CONCERNED WITH AN ISSUE.

BIND=
TO COMPEL, OBLIGE, OR UNITE, AS WITH A SENSE OF MORAL DUTY.
(LAW)- TO PLACE UNDER LEGAL OBLIGATION BY CONTRACT OR OATH.
TO SUBJECT TO A SPECIFIC LEGAL OBLIGATION.
TO MAKE A PERSON LIABLE FOR THE FULFILMENT OF AN OBLIGATION.
TO PERFORM A STATED ACT OR PURSUE A LINE OF CONDUCT.
TO OBLIGE A PERSON TO UNDERTAKE A PARTICULAR ACT.

REPUTATION=
THE GENERAL ESTIMATION IN WHICH A PERSON OR THING IS HELD BY THE PUBLIC:WHAT IS KNOWN, SAID, OR THOUGHT ABOUT A PERSON.
THE STATE OR FACT OF BEING HIGHLY THOUGHT OF OR HAVING A GOOD REPUTATION.
A SPECIFIED CHARACTER OR TRAIT ASCRIBED TO A PERSON OR THING.

IDEOLOGY=
A SET OF DOCTRINES OR BELIEFS THAT FORM THE BASIS OF A POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, OR OTHER SYSTEM.
THE BODY OF IDEAS REFLECTING THE NEEDS OR ASPIRATIONS OF AN INDIVIDUAL, GROUP, OR CULTURE.

INTRA VIRES=
(LATIN: WITHIN POWERS) DESCRIBING AN ACT CARRIED OUT BY A BODY (SUCH AS A PUBLIC AUTHORITY OR COMPANY) THAT IS WITHIN THE LIMITS OF THE POWERS CONFERRED ON IT BY STATUTE OR SOME OTHER CONSTITUTING DOCUMENT.

LIABILITY=
A LEGAL DUTY OR OBLIGATION.

PUBLIC GOOD=
THERE IS ALSO A SPECIAL DEFENCE OF PUBLIC GOOD. WHICH APPLIES WHEN THE DEFENDANT SHOWS THAT PUBLICATION OF THE ARTICLE WAS JUSTIFIED AS BEING IN THE INTERESTS OF SCIENCE, LITERATURE, ART, OR LEARNING.

A PRIORI=
LATIN: FROM THE PREVIOUS (I.E. FROM CAUSE TO EFFECT) DESCRIBING OR RELATING TO REASONING THAT IS BASED ON ABSTRACT IDEAS, ANTICIPATES THE EFFECT OF PARTICULAR CAUSES, OR MORE LOOSELY MAKES A PRESUMPTION THAT IS TRUE AS FAR AS IS KNOWN, I.E. DEDUCTIVE REASONING.

OVERLORD=
A LORD HAVING POWER OR SUPREMACY OVER OTHER LORDS.
ONE IN A POSITION OF SUPREMACY OR DOMINATION OVER OTHERS.

A POSTERIORI=
LATIN: FROM THE LATER (I.E. FROM EFFECT TO CAUSE) DESCRIBING OR RELATING TO REASONING BASED ON DEDUCTION FROM OBSERVATION OR KNOWN FACTS, I.E. INDUCTIVE REASONING.

PROPOUND=
PUT FORWARD (AN IDEA, THEORY, ETC) FOR CONSIDERATION.

PERVERTING THE COURSE OF JUSTICE=
CARRY OUT AN ACT THAT TENDS OR IS INTENDED TO OBSTRUCT OR DEFEAT THE ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC JUSTICE.

PROMISSORY=
CONVEYING OR IMPLYING A PROMISE; OF PERTAINING TO, OR OF THE NATURE OF A PROMISE. INDICATIVE OF SOMETHING TO COME; FULL OF PROMISE, PROMISING.

UNDERTAKING=
A PROMISE, ESPECIALLY IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS, THAT CREATES AN OBLIGATION.

NEXT OF KIN=
ONE’S CLOSEST LIVING RELATION OR RELATIONS.

STANDARD OF PROOF=
THE DEGREE OF PROOF REQUIRED FOR ANY FACT IN ISSUE IN LITIGATION, WHICH IS ESTABLISH BY ASSESSING THE EVIDENCE RELEVANT TO IT. IN CRIMINAL CASES THE STANDARD IS PROOF BEYOND REASONABLE DOUBT (ALSO BURDEN OF PROOF);IN CIVIL CASES (INCLUDING DIVORCE PETITIONS) THE STANDARD IS PROOF ON A BALANCE OF PROBABILITIES.

MILITARY=
RELATED TO OR CHARACTERISTIC OF SOLDIER OR ARMED FORCES.

AMNESTY=
AN ACT ERASING FROM LEGAL MEMORY SOME ASPECT OF CRIMINAL CONDUCT BY AN OFFENDER. IT IS MOST FREQUENTLY GRANTED TO GROUPS OF PEOPLE IN RESPECT OF POLITICAL OFFENCES AND IS WIDER THAN A PARDON, WHICH MERELY RELIEVES AN OFFENDER OF PUNISHMENT.

REGIME=

 A SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT OR A PARTICULAR ADMINISTRATION.
A SOCIAL SYSTEM OR ORDER.

LORD=
THE CEREMONIAL TITLE OF CERTAIN HIGH OFFICIALS.
A PERSON WHO HAS POWER OR AUTHORITY OVER OTHERS, SUCH AS MONARCH OR MASTER.

BEAU IDEAL=

A PERSON OR THING REPRESENTING THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE STANDARD OF EXCELLENCE IN A PARTICULAR RESPECT.

PROPERTY=
A SPECIAL QUALITY OR CHARACTERISTIC THAT SOMETHING HAS.

ADMISSIBILITY OF EVIDENCE=
THE PRINCIPLES DETERMINING WHETHER OR NOT PARTICULAR ITEMS OF EVIDENCE MAY BE RECEIVED BY THE COURT. THE CENTRAL PRINCIPLE OF ADMISSIBILITY IS RELEVANCE. ALL IRRELEVANT EVIDENCE IS INADMISSIBLE, BUT EVIDENCE THAT IS LEGALLY RELEVANT MAY ALSO BE INADMISSIBLE IF IT FALLS WITHIN THE SCOPE OF ONE OF THE EXCLUSIONARY RULES OF EVIDENCE.

EXCLUSIONARY RULES=
RULES IN LAW OF EVIDENCE PROHIBITING THE PROOF OF CERTAIN FACTS OR THE PROOF OF FACTS IN PARTICULAR WAYS. ALTHOUGH ALL IRRELEVANT EVIDENCE MUST BE EXCLUDED , THE RULES ARE USUALLY RESTRICTED TO RELEVANT EVIDENCE, E.G. THE RULE AGAINST HEARSAY EVIDENCE. EXCLUSIONARY RULES MAY BE JUSTIFIED IN VARIOUS WAYS; FOR EXAMPLE BY THE DESIRABILITY OF EXCLUDING MATERIAL THAT IS OF LITTLE EVIDENTIARY WEIGHT OR MAY BE UNFAIRLY PREJUDICIAL TO AN ACCUSED PERSON.

TASK FORCE=
AN ARMED FORCE ORGANIZED FOR A SPECIAL OPERATION.
A UNIT SPECIALLY ORGANIZE FOR A TASK.
(THE GOVERNMENT HAS SET UP A TASK FORCE TO SURVEY MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES.)

PROMISE=
AN UNDERTAKING GIVEN BY ONE PERSON (THE PROMISOR) TO ANOTHER (THE PROMISEE) TO DO OR REFRAIN FROM DOING SOMETHING. IT IS LEGALLY BINDING ONLY IF CONTAINED IN A CONTRACT OR MADE A DEED.

THE MONARCHY=
THE MONARCH AND ROYAL FAMILY OF A COUNTRY.

LEADER=
A PERSON WHO RULES, GUIDES OR INSPIRES OTHERS: HEAD
THE INSPIRATON OR HEAD OF A MOVEMENT. SUCH AS A POLITICAL PARTY.

LEADERSHIP=
THE ACT OF LEADING; THE ABILITY TO BE A LEADER; THE LEADER OF AN AN ORGANIZATION OR MOVEMENT COLLECTIVELY.

POLITICAL GROUP=
A GROUP OF PEOPLE WHO WORK TOGETHER IN PURSUIT OF A POLITICAL GOAL.

DUTY=
ACTION OR AN ACT THAT IS DUE IN EAY OF MORAL OR LEGAL OBLIGATION; THAT WHICH ONE OUGHT OR IS BOUND TO DO; AN OBLIGATION.

CONTRACT=
AN AGREEMENT, ESP A LEGALLY BINDING ONE.

AGREEMENT=
A CONTRACT OR PROMISE.

BEAR A HAND=
HELP IN A TASK OR ENTERPRISE.

HIGH PROFILE=
A CONSPICUOUS, WELL PUBLICISE PRESENCE OR STANCE.

NOBILITY=
THE QUALITY OF BEING NOBLE IN CHARACTER
(A MAN OF NOBILITY AND LEARNING.)
THE QUALITY OF BELONGING TO THE ARISTOCRACY.

KIN=
ONE’S FAMILY AND RELATIONS.

EXECUTOR=
A PERSON WHO PRODUCES SOMETHING OR PUT SOMETHING INTO EFFECT.

PARACHUTE=
APPOINT OR BE APPOINTED IN AN EMERGENCY OR FROM OUTSIDE THE EXISTING HIERARCHY.

OFFICIAL=
A PERSON APPOINTED OR ELECTED TO AN OFFICE OR CHARGED WITH DUTIES.
OF OR PERTAINING TO AN OFFICE OR POSITION OF DUTY, TRUST, OR AUTHORITY: (OFFICIAL POWERS).

PARADOX=
A SEEMINGLY ABSURD OR CONTRADICTORY STATEMENT OR PROPOSITION WHICH WHEN INVESTIGATED MAY PROVE WELL FOUNDED OR TRUE.

PROPOSAL=

THE ACT OF OFFERING OR SUGGESTING SOMETHING FOR ACCEPTANCE, ADOPTION, OR PERFORMANCE.
A PLAN OR SCHEME PROPOSED.

LORD CHANCELLOR VISITORS=
A PERSON APPOINTED TO VISIT AND INSPECT AN INSTITUTION AND, IN PARTICULAR TO INQUIRE INTO INTERNAL IRREGULARITIES.
A LORD CHANCELLOR VISITOR IS APPOINTED UNDER THE MENTAL HEALTH ACT 1983 TO VISIT PATIENTS AND INQUIRE INTO THEIR ABILITY TO MANAGE THEIR AFFAIRS.

A FREE REIN=
FREEDOM OF ACTION OR EXPRESSION.

LEXICOLOGY=
THE STUDY OF THE FORM, MEANING, AND BEHAVIOUR OF WORDS.

OFFICE BEARER=
A PERSON HOLDING A POSITION OF AUTHORITY IN AN ORGANIZATION.

OFFICER=
A PERSON HOLDING A POSITION OF AUTHORITY.
A HOLDER OF A SENIOR POST IN SOCIETY, COMPANY OR OTHER ORGANIZATION.
PROVIDE WITH MILITARY OFFICERS.

STATE OF LIFE=
A PERSON’S OCCUPATION, CALLING, OR STATUS.

PARDON=
AN OFFICIAL DECISION NOT TO PUNISH SOMEBODY FOR A CRIME.
BE GRANTED A ROYAL PARDON IE: BY THE KING, QUEEN, EMPEROR OR EMPRESS.

CHARISMA=
PERSONAL QUALITY ENABLING A PERSON TO INFLUENCE OR INSPIRE OTHERS.
A GOD GIVEN POWER OR GIFT.

MOBOCRACY=
RULE OR DOMINATION BY THE MASSES.

POLITICAL SCIENCE=
A SOCIAL SCIENCE DEALING WITH POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS AND WITH THE PRINCIPLES AND CONDUCT OF GOVERNMENT.
(ESP AS AN ACADEMIC SUBJECT) THE STUDY OF THE STATE, GOVERNMENT, AND POLITICS:ONE OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES.
THE SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS. POLITICAL SCIENCE IS A SOCIAL SCIENCE THAT MAKE GENERALIZATIONS AND ANALYSES ABOUT POLITICAL SYSTEMS AND POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR AND USES THESE RESULTS TO PREDICT FUTURE BEHAVIOR. POLITICAL SCIENCE INCLUDES THE STUDY OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY, ETHICS, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, AND THE DYNAMICS RELATIONS BETWEEN DIFFERENT PARTS OF GOVERNMENTS.

SOCIAL SCIENCE=
THE STUDY OF SOCIETY AND IT BEHAVIOUR.
A SCIENCE OR FIELD OF STUDY, AS HISTORY, ECONOMICS, ETC., DEALING WITH AN ASPECT OF SOCIETY OR FORMS OF SOCIAL ACTIVITY.
THE STUDY OF SOCIETY AND OF THE RELATIONSHIPS OF INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS WITHIN SOCIETY, INCLUDING ECONOMICS, HISTORY, POLITICAL SCIENCE, PSYCHOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, AND SOCIOLOGY.
ANY OF THESE SUBJECTS STUDIED INDIVIDUALLY.
A BRANCH OF SCIENCE THAT DEALS WITH THE INSTITUTIONS AND FUNCTIONING OF HUMAN SOCIETY AND WITH THE INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS OF INDIVIDUALS AS MEMBERS OF SOCIETY.

PROFESSOR=
A PERSON WHO PROFESSES HIS OR HER SENTIMENTS, BELIEFS, VIEWS, OPINIONS, IDEAS, ETC.
ONE WHO PROFESSES.

PROPAGATOR=
A PERSON WHO PROPAGATES AN IDEA, KNOWLEDGE, ETC.

APPELLATION=
A NAME OR TITLE (APPELLATION) NAME: NICK NAME;TERM DESIGNATION, TRADE NAME.

TRADE NAME=
A NAME THAT HAS THE STATUS OF A TRADEMARK.
A NAME BY WHICH SOMETHING IS KNOWN IN PARTICULAR TRADE OR PROFFESSION.

TRADEMARK=
A DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTIC OR OBJECT.
IDENTIFY ( A HABIT, QUALITY OR WAY OF LIFE) AS TYPICAL OF SOMEONE.

ACTIVE=
ENGAGED IN ACTION; CHARACTERIZED BY ENERGETIC WORK, PARTICIPATION, ETC.; BUSY: AN ACTIVE LIFE.
BEING IN A STATE OF EXISTENCE, PROGRESS, OR MOTION.
INVOLVING PHYSICAL EFFORT AND ACTION.
HAVING THE POWER OF QUICK MOTION.
CHARACTERIZED BY ACTION, MOTION, VOLUME, USE, PARTICIPATION, ETC.
CAUSING ACTIVITY OR CHANGE; CAPABLE OF EXERTING INFLUENCE (EFFECTIVE).
REQUIRING OR GIVING RISE TO ACTION; PRACTICAL: AN ACTIVE COURSE OF ACTION.
REQUIRING PERSONAL EFFORT OR ATTENTION.
AN ACTIVE PERSON, MEMBER, SUBSCRIBER, ETC.
INFORMAL. SOMETHING SHOWING CONSIDERABLE ACTION OR ACTIVITY.
CONTAINING A SOURCE OF POWER: AN ACTIVE NETWORK.
BEING FULLY ENGAGED IN MILITARY SERVICE (ESP IN THE PHRASE ON ACTIVE SERVICE).

TITLE DEED=
A LEGAL DEED OR DOCUMENT CONSTITUTING EVIDENCE OF A RIGHT ESPECIALLY ONE REGARDING THE OWNERSHIP OF PROPERTY OR LEGAL RIGHTS.

PHILANTROPIST=
A PERSONS EFFORT OR INCLINATION TO INCREASE THE WELL-BEING OF HUMANKIND, AS BY CHARITABLE AID OR DONATIONS.
LOVE OF HUMANKIND IN GENERAL.
SOMETHING, SUCH AS AN ACTIVITY OR INSTITUTION, INTENDED TO PROMOTE HUMAN WELFARE.

NOBLE=

1. HAVING DIGNITY OR EMINENCE (ILLUSTRIOUS)
2. HAVING OR SHOWING GREATNESS OR MAGNANIMITY OF CHARACTER OR HIGH IDEALS.
3. GRAND OR IMPOSING (MAGNIFICENT)
4. BELONGING BY RANK, TITLE, OR BIRTH TO THE ARISTOCRACY.
5. GRACIOUS AND DIGNIFIED IN CHARACTER OR BEARING.
6. HAVING OR SHOWING FINE ADMIRABLE PERSONAL QUALITIES OR HIGH MORAL PRINCIPLES.
7. IMPOSING STATELY OR LOFTY AND EXALTED RANK OR CHARACTER.
8. MAGNIFICENT IN SIZE, BEARING, QUALITY, DIGNITY OR APPEARANCE.
9. FAMOUS RENOWNED, NOTABLE.
10. EXCELLENCE IN QUALITY OR CHARACTER OR SUPERIOR QUALITY OR KIND.
11. HIGH IN SOCIAL RANK OR CHARACTER.
12. SUPERORIORITY OF MIND AND CHARACTER.
13. NOBLE MEMBER OF THE PRESTIGE.
14. IMPRESSIVE, STATELY, GENEROUS, EXCELLENT, WORTHY
15. A PERSON BELONGING TO A PRIVILEGE CLASS WHOSE STATUS IS USUALLY INDICATED.BY TITLE.

ADHERENT=
SOMEONE WHO SUPPORTS A PARTICULAR PARTY, PERSON, OR SET OF IDEAS.

ASSUME=
TO TAKE FOR GRANTED; SUPPOSE.
TO UNDERTAKE: TO ASSUME OFFICE, RESPONSIBILITY OR OBLIGATIONS.
TO BE APPROPRIATE OR USURP.
TO INVEST ONESELF FORMALLY WITH: ASSUME EMPERORSHIP.
TO TAKE ADOPT:”THE GOD ASSUMES A HUMAN FORM”.
TO FEIGN; AFFECT.

KITH AND KIN=
FRIENDS AND RELATIONS.

KINDRED=
A FAMILY RELATIONSHIP.
ONE’S FAMILY AND RELATIONS.

TITLE=
A NAME THAT DESCRIBES SOMEONE’S POSITION OR JOB:
A WORD SUCH A IMPERATOR THAT IS USED BEFORE SOMEONE’S NAME, OR A FORM THAT IS USED INSTEAD OF SOMEONE’S NAME, TO INDICATE HIGH SOCIAL OR OFFICIAL RANK.
A DESCRIPTIVE OR DISTINCTIVE NAME THAT IS EARNED OR CHOSEN.
(LAW) A RIGHT OR CLAIM TO THE OWNERSHIP OF PROPERTY OR TO A RANK OR THRONE.

TITLED=
OF A PERSON HAVING A TITLE INDICATING HIGH SOCIAL OR OFFICIAL RANK.

CHARISMATIC=
EXERCISING A COMPELLING CHARM WHICH INSPIRES DEVOTION IN OTHERS.
OF A POWER OR TALENT DIVINELY CONFERRED.
A PERSON WHO CLAIMS DIVINE INSPIRATION.

REGAL=
OF RESEMBLING OR FIT FOR A MONARCH, ESPECIALLY IN BEING MAGNIFICENT OR DIGNIFIED.
(MY REGAL BEARING.) (MY KINGLY BEARING.)

SUBLIME=
OF SUCH EXCELLENCE, GRANDEUR OR BEAUTY AS TO INSPIRE GREAT ADMIRATION OR AWE.

BLOG=
A JOURNAL WRITTEN ON-LINE AND ACCESSIBLE TO USERS OF THE INTERNET, SUCH INDIVIDUAL, GROUPS, OR CORPORATION PRESENTS A RECORD OF ACTIVITIES, THOUGHTS, OR BELIEFS. IN ADDITION, MANY BLOGS PROVIDE A FORUM TO ALLOW VISTORS TO LEAVE COMMENTS AND INTERACT WITH THE PUBLISHER.
AN ONLINE DIARY; A PERSONAL CHRONOLOGICAL LOG OF THOUGHTS PUBLISHED ON A WEB PAGE, TYPICALLY UPDATED DAILY, BLOGS OFTEN REFLECT THE PERSONALITY OF THE AUTHOR.
A TYPE OF ONLINE DIARY THAT SOMEONE MAKES AVAILABLE TO PEOPLE ON THE INTERNET.

INTELLECTUALIST=
DEVOTION TO INTELLECTUAL PURSUITS.

INTELLIGENTSIA=
INTELLECTUALS OR HIGHLY EDUCATED PEOPLE AS A GROUP, ESPECIALLY WHEN REGARDED AS POSSESSING CULTURE AND POLITICAL INFLUENCE.
INTELLECTUALS WHO FORM AN ARTISTIC, SOCIAL, OR POLITICAL VANGUARD OR ELITE.
THE INTELLECTUAL CLASS COLLECTIVELY.
THE EDUCATED OR INTELLECTUAL PEOPLE IN A SOCIETY OR COMMUNITY.
INTELLECTUALS CONSIDERED AS A GROUP OR CLASS, ESP. CULTURAL, SOCIAL, OR POLITICAL ELITE.

INTELLIGENCE=
A COLLECTION OF INFORMATION OF MILITARY OR POLITICAL VALUE.
MILITARY OR POLITICAL INFORMATION COLLECTIVELY.

LICENCE=
A WRITER’S OR ARTIST’S FREEDOM TO DEVIATE FROM FACTS OR ACCEPTED CONVENTIONS.

PARACHUTE=
APPOINT OR BE APPOINTED IN AN EMERGENCY OR FROM OUTSIDE THE EXISTING HIERARCHY.

POLITICIAN=
A PERSON ACTIVELY INVOLVED IN POLITICS, ESP PARTY POLITICS.
ONE SKILLED AT OR GIVEN TO SCHEMING.
A PERSON WHO IS PROFESSIONALLY INVOLVED IN POLITICS, ESPECIALLY AS A HOLDER OF AN ELECTED OFFICE.
A PERSON WHO ACTS IN A MANIPULATIVE AND DEVIOUS WAY, TYPICALLY TO GAIN ADVANCEMENT WITHIN AN ORGANIZATION.
A PERSON ENGAGED IN POLITICS OFTEN USED WITH IMPLICATIONS OF SEEKING PERSONAL OR PARTISAN GAIN, SCHEMING, ETC.
ONE WHO IS SKILLED OR EXPERIENCED IN THE SCIENCE, ART OR ADMINISTRATION OF GOVERNMENT AND POWER.
ONE WHO HOLDS OR SEEKS A POLITICAL OFFICE.

ACTIVIST=
AN ESPECIALLY ACTIVE, VIGOROUS ADVOCATE OF A CAUSE, ESP. A POLITICAL CAUSE.

THE NOBILITY=
THE GROUP OF PEOPLE BELONGING TO THE HIGHEST SOCIAL CLASS IN A COUNTRY: THE ARISTOCRACY.
A MEMBER OF THE ENGLISH NOBILITY.

GRAND MASTER=
THE HEAD OF AN ORDER OF CHIVALRY OR FREEMASONS

FREEMASON=
A MEMBER OF AN INTERNATIONAL ORDER ESTABLISHED FOR MUTUAL HELP AND FELLOWSHIP, WHICH HOLDS ELABORATE SECRET CEREMONIES.
MODERN FREEMASONRY IS USUALLY TRACED TO THE FORMATION OF THE GRAND LODGE IN LONDON IN 1717: MEMBERS ARE TYPICALLY PROFESSIONALS AND BUSINESSMEN.

CHIVALRY=
THE MEDIEVAL KNIGHTLY SYSTEM WITH ITS RELIGOUS, MORAL AND SOCIAL CODE.
THE COMBINATION OF QUALITIES EXPECTED OF AN IDEAL KNIGHT, NAMELY  COURAGE, HONOUR, COURTESY, JUSTCE, AND A READINESS TO HELP THE WEAK.
KNIGHTS, NOBLEMAN, HORSEMAN (COLLECTIVELY)

GRAND SEIGNEUR=
A MAN WHOSE RANK OR POSITION ALLOWS HIM TO COMMAND OTHERS.

SEIGNER=
A FEUDAL LORD: THE LORD OF THE MANOR.

CYBER-ACTIVISM=
THE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, THE INTERNET, AND VIRTUAL REALITY TO CAMPAIGN VIGOROUSLY TO BRING ABOUT POLITICAL OR SOCIAL CHANGE.

THE ELECT=
THE CHOSEN, THE ELITE, THE FAVOURED; THE CREME DE LA CREME.

REGAL=
BELONGING OR RELATED TO MONARCH.

REGALIAN=
THE STATE OF BEING A KING, QUEEN, EMPEROR OR EMPRESS.
THE DEMEANOUR OF DIGNITY APPROPRIATE TO A KING, QUEEN, EMPEROR OR EMPRESS.

REIGN=
HOLD ROYAL OFFICE; RULE AS MONARCH.

(OF A QUALITY OR CONDITION BE THE DOMINANT FEATURE OF A SITUATION OR PLACE.)
A PERIOD RULE OF A MONARCH. THE PERIOD DURING WHICH SOMEONE OR SOMETHING IS PREDOMINANT OR PRE-EMINENT.

OFFICIALESE=
THE FORMAL AND TYPICALLY VERBOSE STYLE OF WRITING CONSIDERED TO BE CHARACTERISTIC OF OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS.

DISTINGUISHED=
NOBLE AND DIGNIFIED IN APPEARANCE.
SUCCESSFUL AND COMMANDING GREAT RESPECT.

BLOOD IS THICKER THAN WATER=
FAMILY RELATIONS AND LOYALTIES ARE THE STRONGEST AND MOST IMPORTANT ONES.

OLD BOY NETWORK=
AN EXCLUSIVE NETWORK THAT LINKS MEMBERS OF A PROFESSION, SOCIAL CLASS, OR ORGANIZATION OR THE ALUMNI OF A PARTICULAR SCHOOL THROUGH WHICH THE INDIVIDUALS ASSIST ONE ANOTHER IN BUSINESS, POLITICS ETC.

MASTERPIECE=
OUTSTANDING WORK OF ART.
A WORK OF OUTSTANDING ARTISTRY, SKILL OR WORKMANSHIP: (A GREAT LITERARY MASTERPIECE.)
A CONSUMMATE EXAMPLE OF SKILL OR EXCELLENCE OF ANY KIND.
A PIECE MADE BY A PERSON ASPIRING TO THE RANK OF MASTER IN A GUILD OR OTHER CRAFT ORGANIZATION AS A PROOF OF COMPETENCE.
SOMETHING SUPERLATIVE OF ITS KIND: (A MASTERPIECE OF POLITICAL INGENUITY).

WORK OF ART=
A PIECE OF WORK DEEMED SUPERIOR OR VALUABLE.
A FINE PIECE OF COMPOSITION (LITERATURE).

LITERARY=
CONCERNING THE WRITING, STUDY, OR CONTENT OF LITERATURE, ESPECIALLY OF THE KIND VALUED FOR QUALITY OF FORM.
CONCERNED WITH LITERATURE AS A PROFESSION.
(OF LANGUAGE) ASSOCIATED WITH LITERARY WORKS OR OTHER FORMAL WRITING; HAVING A MARKED STYLE INTENDED TO CREATE A PARTICULAR EMOTIONAL EFFECT.

LITERARY CRITICISM=
THE ART OR PRACTICE OF JUDGING AND COMMENTING ON THE QUALITIES AND CHARACTER OF LITERARY WORKS.

FINE WORDS=
OF WRITING SOUNDING IMPRESSIVE BUT UTIMATELY INSINCERE.

LITERATURE=
WRITTEN WORKS REGARDED AS IMAGINATIVE, CREATIVE AND HAVING ARTISTIC MERIT.
WRITTEN WORKS, ESPECIALLY THOSE CONSIDERED AS SUPERIOR OR LASTING ARTISTIC MERIT.

PARLIAMENTARIAN=
A PERSON WHO IS EXPERT OR VERSED IN THE FORMAL RULES AND PROCEDURES OF DELIBERATIVE ASSEMBLIES AND OTHER FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS.
OF OR RELATING TO A PARLIAMENT OR PARLIAMENTS.

AUTHORITY=
THE POWER TO INFLUENCE OTHERS BASED ON RECOGNIZED KNOWLEDGE OR EXPERTISE.
A PERSON OR ORGANIZATION EXERTING CONTROL IN A POLITICAL OR ADMINISTRATIVE SPHERE
.
THE POWER OR RIGHT TO GIVE ORDERS AND ENFORCE OBEDIENCE.
THE POWER OR RIGHT TO COMMAND; OFFICIAL WITH THIS POWER; INFLUENCE RESULTING FROM KNOWLEGE, PRESIGE, ETC. A PERSON, WRITING ETC CITED TO SUPPORT AN OPINION. AN EXPERT.

PRESTIGIOUS=
INSPIRING RESPECT AND ADMIRATION HAVING HIGH STATUS.
IMPARTING PRESTIGE OR DISTINCTION.

CERTIFY=
TO DECLARE IN WRITING OR ATTEST FORMALLY: TO ENDORSE WITH AUTHORITY.

STUDENT=
ANY PERSON WHO STUDIES, INVESTIGATES, OR EXAMINES THOUGHTFULLY: A STUDENT OF HUMAN NATURE.

PERSONALITY CULT=
EXCESSIVE PUBLIC ADMIRATION FOR OR DEVOTION TO A FAMOUS, RENOWNED OR DISTINGUISHED PERSON, ESP A POLITICAL LEADER OR FIGURE.

POLICY=

A COURSE OR PRINCIPLE OF ACTION ADOPTED OR PROPOSED BY AN ORGANIZATION OR INDIVIDUAL.

IDEALISM=
THE PRACTICE OF FORMING OR PURSUING IDEALS, ESPECIALLY UNREALISTICALLY.
(IN ART OR LITERATURE) THE REPRESENTATION OF THINGS IN IDEAL FORM.

REFLECTED GLORY=
FAME OR APPROVAL ACHIEVED THROUGH ASSOCIATION WITH SOMEONE ELSE RATHER THAN THROUGH ONE’S EFFORTS.

LAW OF SUCCESSION=
THE LAW REGULATING THE INHERITANCE OF PROPERTY.
THE LAW REGULATING THE APPOINTMENT OF THE NEW MONARCH OR HEAD OF STATE.

STANDARD-BEARER=
A PERSON WHO CARRIES A DISTINCTIVE FLAG.
A PROMINENT LEADER IN A CAUSE.

CERTIFICATE=
DOCUMENTATION FORMALLY ATTESTING A FACT: A TESTIMONIAL OF QUALIFICATION OR CHARACTER.

LUMINARY=
A PERSON WHO INSPIRES OR INFLUNCES OTHERS ESPECIALLY A LEADING PERSON IN A PARTICULAR ACTIVITY ESPECIALLY ONE PROMINENT IN A PARICLAR SPHERE.

 

EXPERTISE=

GREAT SKILL OR KNOWLEDGE IN A PARTICULAR FIELD.

FEAT=
A NOTEWORTHY OR EXTRAORDINARY ACT OR ACHIEVEMENT, USUALLY DISPLAYING BOLDNESS, SKILL, ETC.

JURISPRUDENCE=
THE SCIENCE OR PHILOSOPHY OF LAW.
A BODY OR SYSTEM OF LAWS.

STATESMAN=
A PERSON ACTIVE AND INFLUENTIAL IN THE FORMULATION OF HIGH GOVERNMENTAL POLICY.
A SKILLED, EXPERIENCED AND RESPECTED POLITICAL LEADER OR FIGURE.

RELATED=
BELONGING TO THE SAME FAMILY, GROUP OR TYPE: CONNECTED.

PRESIGE=
STANDING IN THE EYES OF PEOPLE; COMMANDING POSITION IN PEOPLE’S MINDS.

ARGUMENTATIVE AFFIDAVIT=
AN AFFIDAVIT CONTAINING NOT ONLY ALLEGATIONS OF FACT BUT ALSO ARGUMENTS AS TO THE BEARING OF THOSE FACTS ON THE MATTER IN DISPUTE.

GUILD=
AN ORGANIZATION OF PERSONS WITH RELATED INTERESTS, GOALS, ETC., ESP. ONE FORMED FOR MUTUAL AID OR PROTECTION.
AN ASSOCIATION OF PERSONS OF THE SAME TRADE OR PURSUITS, FORMED TO PROTECT MUTUAL INTERESTS AND MAINTAIN STANDARDS.

STRATUM=
A LEVEL OF A SOCIAL HIERACHY.

AMICUS CURIAE=
(LATIN: FRIEND OF COURT)
COUNSEL WHO ASSISTS THE COURT BY PUTTING ARGUMENTS IN SUPPORT OF AN INTEREST THAT MIGHT NOT BE ADEQUATELY REPRESENTED BY THE PARTIES TO THE PROCEEDINGS (SUCH AS THE PUBLIC INTEREST) OR BY ARGUING ON BEHALF OF A PARTY WHO IS OTHERWISE UNREPRESENTED. IN MODERN PRACTICE, WHEN A COURT REQUIRES THE ASSISTANCE OF AN AMICUS CURIAE IT IS CUSTOMARY TO INVITE THE ATTORNEY GENERAL TO ATTEND, EITHER IN PERSON OR BY COUNSEL INSTRUCTED ON HIS BEHALF, TO REPRESENT THE PUBLIC INTEREST, BUT COUNSEL HAVE BEEN PERMITTED TO ACT AS AMICUS CURIAE ON BEHALF OF PROFESSIONAL BODIES (E.G. THE LAW SOCIETY).

COUSIN=
A TERM OF ADDRESS USED BY A SOVEREIGN IN SPEAKING, WRITING, OR REFERRING TO ANOTHER SOVEREIGN OR A HIGH RANK NOBLE OF THEIR OWN COUNTRY.

MONARCHY=
A SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT RULE BY A KING, QUEEN, EMPEROR OR EMPRESS.

 

EXERT=

APPLY OR BRING TO BEAR (A FORCE, INFLUENCE, OR QUALITY).

CHARISMA=
THE SPECIAL MAGNECTIC APPEAL, CHARM OR POWER OF AN INDIVIDUAL EG. A POLITICAL LEADER THAT INSPIRES POPULAR LOYALTY AND ENTHUSIASM.

PLEDGE=
TO MAKE A SOLEMN BINDING PROMISE; SWEAR.
TO BIND OR SECURE BY OR AS IF BY A PLEDGE: I PLEDGE MYSELF TO THE CAUSE.
TO OFFER OR GUARANTEE BY A SOLEMN BINDING PROMISE: I PLEDGE LOYALTY TO GOD.
I SOLEMN BINDING PROMISE TO DO, GIVE, OR REFRAIN FROM DOING SOMETHING: SIGN A PLEDGE TO BE A LAW-ABIDING CITIZEN.

 

OBLIGATION=

AN ACT OR COURSE OF ACTION TO WHICH A PERSON IS MORALLY OR LEGALLY BOUND >

THE CONDITION OF BEING SO BOUND. > A DEBT OF GRATITUDE FOR A SERVICE OR FAVOUR.

 

A (OR ONE’S) BOUNDEN DUTY=

AN OBLIGATORY RESPONSIBILITY.

DE JURE=
BY RIGHT; ACCORDING TO LAW.

DE FACTO=
IN FACT, WHETHER BY RIGHT OR NOT.
EXISTING OR HOLDING A SPECIFIED POSITION IN FACT BUT NOT NECESSARILY BY LEGAL RIGHT.

 

DUTY=

A MORAL OR LEGAL OBLIGATION.

 

AFFILIATE=

OFFICIALLY ATTACH OR CONNECT TO AN ORGANIZATION. > (OF AN ORGANIZATION) ADMIT AS A MEMBER.

 

IMPERATOR=

LATIN – (EMPEROR)
A COMMANDER OR MILITARY COMMANDER.
A SOCIO-POLITICAL OFFICER OR FIGURE.
IN A WIDER SENSE, AS A TITLE OF SOVEREIGNTY CONSIDERED SUPERIOR TO THAT OF ‘KING’.
EMPEROR IS THE RULER OF AN EMPIRE, OR GROUP OF NATIONS OR PEOPLES OR STATES. THE KING USUALLY RULES ONLY ONE AREA OR PEOPLE, BUT  AN EMPEROR RULES SEVERAL OR MORE. THE WORD COMES FROM THE LATIN WORD IMPERATOR, MEANING 
A COMMANDER; A LEADER; AN EMPEROR.


EMPERY=
THE STATUS, DIGNITY, OR DOMINION OF AN EMPEROR.

KING=
KING IS A TITLE DENOTING SOVEREIGNTY IN MANY EASTERN COUNTRIES, THE KING OR EMPEROR WAS ONCE CONSIDERED TO BE THE REPRESENTATIVE OF GOD OR A DIVINE FAMILY.

OATH=

A SOLEMN PROMISE, OFTEN INVOKING A DIVINE WITNESS, REGARDING ONE’S FUTURE ACTION OR BEHAVIOUR. > A SWORN DECLARATION, SUCH AS THE PROMISE TO TELL THE TRUTH, IN A COURT OF LAW.
A SOLEMN DECLARATION OR UNDERTAKING NAMING GOD AS WITNESS – SUCH AS (I SWEAR BY ALMIGHTY GOD) OR (SO HELP ME GOD).

COMMISSIONER FOR OATHS=

A SOLICITOR AUTHORIZED TO ADMINISTER AN OATH TO A PERSON MAKING AN AFFIDAVIT.

A SOLICITOR AUTHORIZED TO AUTHENTICATE OATHS ON SWORN STATEMENTS.

AUTHENTICATE=
TO ESTABLISH AS GENUINE OR VALID. TO GIVE AUTHORITY OR LEGAL VALIDITY TO.

KING OF KINGS=
A POWERFUL MONARCH WITH OTHER MONARCHS SUBJECT TO HIM.

THE LORD’S ANOINTED=
(IN ROYALIST THEORY) – KING BY DIVINE RIGHT.

THE ANOINTED=
THE MESSIAH.

DIVINE RIGHT=
THE CONCEPT THAT MONARCHS RULE BY THE AUTHORITY OF GOD RATHER THAN BY CONSENT OF THE PEOPLE:
ANY AUTHORITY SUPPOSED TO BE UNQUESTIONABLE.

AFFIDAVIT=
LAW  – A WRITTEN STATEMENT CONFIRMED BY OATH OR AFFIRMATION, FOR USE AS EVIDENCE IN COURT. > WRITTEN STATEMENT MADE VOLUNTARILY, CONFIRMED BY THE OATH OR AFFIRMATION OF THE PARTY MAKING IT, AND SIGNED BEFORE AN OFFICER EMPOWERED TO ADMINISTER SUCH OATHS, IT USUALLY NAMES THE PLACE OF EXECUTION AND CERTIFIES THAT THE PERSON MAKING IT STATES CERTAIN FACTS AND APPEARS BEFORE THE OFFICER ON A CERTAIN DATE AND  “SUBSCRIBED AND SWORE” TO THE STATEMENT.

SWEAR=

STATE OR PROMISE SOLEMNLY OR ON OATH. > (SWEAR SOMEONE IN) ADMIT SOMEONE TO A POSITION OR OFFICE BY DIRECTING THEM TO TAKE A FORMAL OATH.

AFFIRM=

STATE EMPHATICALLY OR PUBLICLY.  >  LAW  RATIFY (A JUDGEMENT OR AGREEMENT)

LAW  MAKE A FORMAL DECLARATION RATHER THAN TAKING AN OATH.

 

(SUBSCRIBE ONESELF)=

FORMAL SIGN (A WILL, CONTRACT, OATH, ETC.) SIGN ONESELF AS.

WARLORD=
A POWERFUL MILITARY COMMANDER OR COMMANDER IN CHIEF.
A MILITARY COMMANDER WHO HAS A REGIONAL POWER BASE AND RULES BY INDEPENDENT LAW TO CENTRAL GOVERNMENT.

 

RATIFY=

GIVE FORMAL CONSENT TO; MAKE OFFICIALLY VALID.

ACCREDITED=
TO RECOGNISE OR CERTIFY AS MEETING A PRESCRIBED STANDARD

POLITICAL ORGANISATION=

AN ORGANIZED GROUP OF PEOPLE WITH A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, WHICH IS RELATED TO THE STATE, GOVERNMENT OR PUBLIC AFFAIRS OF A COUNTRY.

ORGANIZATION=

AN ORGANIZED GROUP OF PEOPLE WORKING TOGETHER AS A JOINT FORCE TO ACCOMPLISH A SHARED GOAL.

POLITICAL LEADER=

THE STATUS OF AN ACTIVE FIGURE IN POLITICS, WHICH IS THE INSPIRATION AND HEAD AND LEADS AND COMMANDS A GROUP, ORGANIZATION, OR COUNTRY.

ANCILLARY=
PROVIDING SUPPORT TO THE PRIMARY ACTIVITIES OF AN ORGANIZATION.

ARISTOCRAT=
A MEMBER OF THE ARISTOCRACY.
A PERSON WHO HAS THE MANNERS OR QUALITIES OF A MEMBER OF A PRIVILEGED CLASS.

AUXILIARY=
PROVIDING ADDITIONAL HELP OR SUPPORT.

PERSONNEL=
THE BODY OF PERSONS EMPLOYED BY OR ACTIVE IN AN ORGANIZATION, BUSINESS, OR SERVICE.

LEAGUE=
AN ASSOCIATION OR UNION OF PERSONS, NATIONS, ETC FORMED TO PROMOTE THE INTERESTS OF ITS MEMBERS.

UNION=
THE CONDITION OF BEING UNITED.
THE ACT OF UNITING, OR A CONJUNCTION FORMED BY SUCH AN ACT.
AN ASSOCIATION, ALLIANCE, OR CONFEDERATION OF INDIVIDUALS OR GROUP FOR A COMMON PURPOSE, ESP POLITICAL.
A SOCIETY OR ASSOCIATION FORMED BY PEOPLE WITH A COMMON INTEREST OR PURPOSE.

ASSOCIATION=
A CONNECTION OR COOPERATIVE LINK BETWEEN PEOPLE OR ORGANIZATION.
FRIENDSHIP OR COMPANIONSHIP.
A GROUP OF PEOPLE HAVING A COMMON PURPOSE OR INTEREST.
A SOCIETY OR CLUB.

POLITICAL=
OF OR RELATING TO THE GOVERNMENT OR PUBLIC AFFAIRS OF A COUNTRY.
RELATED TO THE IDEAS OR STRATEGIES OF A PARTICULAR PARTY OR GROUP IN POLITICS.
INTERESTED IN OR ACTIVE IN POLITICS.
MOTIVATED BY A PERSON’S BELIEFS OR ACTIONS CONCERNING POLITICS.
DONE OR ACTING IN THE INTERESTS OF STATUS OR POWER WITHIN AN ORGANIZATION RATHER THAN AS A MATTER OF PRINCIPLE.
RELATING TO POLITICS OR GOVERNMENT; CHARACTERISTICS OF POLITICAL PARTIES OR POLITICIANS.
OF OR PERTAINING TO THE STUDY, STRUCTURE, OR AFFAIRS OF GOVERNMENT OR STATE.
HAVING A DEFINITE OR ORGANISED POLICY OR STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT.
OF OR PERTAINING TO POLICIES OR PARTIES WITHIN A STATE.
OF OR PERTAINING TO THE CITIZENS OF STATE.
OF OR PERTAINING TO THE SECURITY OF GOVERNMENT OR STATE.
VERY INTERESTED OR ACTIVE IN POLITICS.
HAVING OR INFLUENCED BY PARTISAN INTERESTS.

CREDENTIAL=
USUALLY, CREDENTIALS.  EVIDENCE OF AUTHORITY, STATUS, RIGHTS, ENTITLEMENT TO PRIVILEGES, OR THE LIKE, USUALLY IN WRITTEN FORM: ONLY THOSE WITH THE PROPER CREDENTIALS ARE ADMITTED.
ANYTHING THAT PROVIDES THE BASIS FOR CONFIDENCE, BELIEF, CREDIT, ETC.
THAT WHICH ENTITLES ONE TO CONFIDENCE, CREDIT OR AUTHORITY.
CREDENTIALS EVIDENCE OR TESTIMONIALS CONCERNING ONE’S RIGHT TO CREDIT, CONFIDENCE, OR AUTHORITY.

DISTINCTION=
A MARKING OFF OR DISTINGUISHING AS DIFFERENT.
THE RECOGNIZING OR NOTING OF DIFFERENCES.
A DISCRIMINATION MADE BETWEEN THINGS AS DIFFERENT:SPECIAL REGARD OF FAVORITISM.
A DISTINGUISHING QUALITY OR CHARACTISTIC.
A DISTINGUISHING OR TREATING WITH SPECIAL HONOR, ATTENTION, OR FAVOR.
AN ACT OF BESTOWING OR A MARK OF. HONOR OR FAVOR.
MARKED SUPERIORITY; NOTE; EMINENCE. NOTEWORTHINESS- CONSPICUOUS.

TITLE=
A NAME DESCRIBING A PERSON’S POSITION, OFFICE OR JOB.> A WORD USED BEFORE OR INSTEAD OF A PERSON’S NAME, INDICATING SOCIAL OR OFFICIAL RANK, PROFESSION, OFFICE, OR ACADEMIC OR MARITAL STATUS.

DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS=
THE DOCTRINE THAT THE RIGHT OF RULE DERIVES DIRECTLY FROM GOD, NOT FROM THE CONSENT OF THE PEOPLE. KINGS ARE ANSWERABLE TO GOD AND GOD ONLY.

POLITICS=

THE ART AND SCIENCE OF GOVERNMENT AND POWER.

PERTAINING TO THE STATE AND ITS AFFAIRS.

THE EXERCISE OF ACTIVITIES CONCERNED WITH THE ACQUISITION OR EXERCISE OF POWER.
THE ACTIVITIES ASSOCIATED WITH GOVERNANCE OF A COUNTRY OR AREA.
THE ACADEMIC STUDY OF GOVERNMENT AND STATE.
A PARTICULAR SET OF POLITICAL BELIEFS OR PRINCIPLES.
(THE POLITICS OF) THE PRINCIPLES RELATING TO OR INHERENT IN A SPHERE OR ACTIVITY, ESPECIALLY WHEN CONCERNED WITH POWER AND STATUS.
ACTIVITIES AIMED AT IMPROVING SOMEONE’S STATUS OR INCREASING POWER WITHIN AN ORGANISATION. (PLAY POLITICS)
THE SCIENCE AND ART OF GOVERNMENT: POLITICAL ACTIVITIES, BELIEFS OR AFFAIRS, FACTIONAL SCHEMING FOR POWER.
THE POLICIES GOALS, OR AFFAIRS OF A GOVERNMENT.
THE METHODS OR TACTICS INVOLVED IN MANAGING A STATE OR GOVERNMENT.
THE SCHEMING AND MANOEUVRING FOR POWER AND PERSONAL ADVANTAGE THAT OCCURS WITHIN A GIVEN SITUATION OR SPHERE.
OPINIONS OR PRICIPLES DEALING POLITICAL SUBJECTS.

(QUOTE) – THE ART OF GOVERNING MANKIND BY DECEIVING THEM.

LEGAL=
OF OR BASED ON LAW; CONCERNED WITH, APPOINTED, REQUIRED, OR PERMITTED BY LAW.
PERMITTED BY LAW; LAWFUL.
OF OR PERTAINING TO LAW; CONNECTED WITH THE LAW OR ITS ADMINISTATION.
APPOINTED, ESTABLISHED REQUIRED OR AUTHORIZED BY LAW; DERIVING AUTHORITY FROM LAW.
RECOGNIZED BY LAW RATHER THAN BY EQUITY.
OF PERTAINING TO, OR CHARACTERISTIC OF THE LAW OR LAWYERS.
A PERSON WHO ACTS IN A LEGAL MANNER OR WITH AUTHORITY.
A PERSON WHOSE STATUS IS PROTECTED BY LAW.
OF, RELATING TO, OR CONCERNED WITH THE LAW: LEGAL DOCUMENT.

VOW=
AN EARNEST PROMISE OR PLEDGE THAT BINDS ONE TO PERFORM A SPECIFIED ACT OR BEHAVE IN A CERTAIN MANNER.
A FORMAL DECLARATION OR ASSERTION.
TO PROMISE OR PLEDGE SOLEMNLY.
A SOLEMN PROMISE. (VOWS)= A SET OF SOLEMN PROMISES COMMITTING ONE TO A PRESCRIBED ROLE, CALLING, OR COURSE OF ACTION.
SOLEMLY PROMISE TO DO A SPECIFIED THING.
DEDICATE TO SOMEONE OR SOMETHING, ESPECIALLY A DEITY.

COMMANDER IN CHIEF=
THE OFFICER HOLDING SUPREME COMMAND OF THE FORCES IN AN AREA OR OPERATION.
THE OFFICER HOLDING COMMAND OF A MAJOR SUBDIVISION OF ONE MILITARY SERVICE.

CREATIVITY=
RELATING TO OR INVOLVING THE USE OF IMAGINATION OR ORIGINAL IDEAS. ABILITY TO PRODUCE SOMETHING NEW THROUGH IMAGINATIVE SKILL, WHETHER A NEW SOLUTION TO A PROBLEM, OR A NEW METHOD. THE TERM GENERALLY REFERS TO A RICHNESS OF IDEAS AND ORIGINALITY OF THINKING, E.G. CREATIVE WRITING.

IMPERIALISM=
A COURSE OR PRINCIPLE OF ACTION ADOPTED, PROPOSED OR PLANNED BY AN ORGANIZATION OR INDIVIDUAL TO EXTEND A COUNTRY’S POWER AND INFLUENCE THROUGH USE OF MILITARY FORCE, SOCIO-POLITICAL POWER/INFLUENCE OR OTHER MEANS.
THE EXTENSION OR ATTEMPTED EXTENSION OF A COUNTRY’S AUTHORITY, INFLUENCE, POWER, ETC, BY ANY PERSON, GROUP OR ORGANIZATION, ETC.

PROPHET=
A PERSON REGARDED AS AN INSPIRED TEACHER OR PROCLAIMER OF THE WILL OF GOD.
A PERSON WHO SPEAKS FOR GOD OR A DEITY, OR BY DIVINE INSPIRATION.
A PERSON WHO PRACTICES DIVINATION.
A PERSON WHO SUPPORTS A NEW SYSTEM OF BELIEFS AND PRINCIPLES.A PERSON REGARDED AS, OR CLAIMING TO BE, AN INSPIRED TEACHER OR LEADER.
A PERSON WHO FORETELLS OR PREDICTS WHAT IS TO COME.
A SPOKESPERSON OF SOME DOCTRINE, CAUSE, OR MOVEMENT.
A PERSON GIFTED WITH PROFOUND MORAL INSIGHT AND EXCEPTIONAL POWERS OF EXPRESSION.
ONE GIFTED WITH MORE THAN ORDINARY SPIRITUAL AND MORAL INSIGHT; ESPECIALLY: AN INSPIRED POET.
IN RELIGION, A PROPHET IS AN INDIVIDUAL WHO IS CLAIMED TO HAVE BEEN CONTACTED BY THE SUPERNATURAL OR THE DIVINE, AND TO SPEAK FOR THEM, SERVING AS AN INTERMEDIARY WITH HUMANITY, DELIVERING THIS NEWFOUND KNOWLEDGE FROM THE SUPERNATURAL ENTITY TO OTHER PEOPLE. THE MESSAGE THAT THE PROPHET CONVEYS IS CALLED A PROPHECY. CLAIMS OF PROPHETHOOD HAVE EXISTED IN MANY CULTURES THROUGH HISTORY, INCLUDING JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY, ISLAM, IN ANCIENT GREECE, ZOROASTRIANISM, AND MANY OTHERS. TRADITIONALLY, PROPHETS ARE REGARDED AS HAVING A ROLE IN SOCIETY THAT PROMOTES CHANGE DUE TO THEIR MESSAGES AND ACTIONS.

ARISTOCRACY=
ORIGINALLY, LEADERSHIP BY A SMALL PRIVILEGED CLASS OR MINORITY THOUGHT TO BE BEST QUALIFIED TO LEAD. PLATO AND ARISTOTLE CONSIDERED ARISTOCRATS TO BE THOSE WHO ARE MORALLY AND INTELLECTUALLY SUPERIOR, AND THEREFORE FIT TO GOVERN IN THE INTEREST OF THE PEOPLE. THE TERM HAS COME TO MEAN THE UPPER LAYER OF A STRATIFIED GROUP.

OATHS=
A STATEMENT OR PROMISE INTENDED TO BE SOLEMN AND BINDING BY ASSOCIATING IT WITH THE DEITY OR OTHER NAME OR SYMBOL REVERED BY THE PERSON MAKING THE OATH. OATHS WERE FORBIDDEN BY THE EARLY CHRISTIAN CHURCH BUT WERE ALLOWED WHEN REQUIRED BY LEGAL AUTHORITY. SOME DENOMINATION, HOWEVER, STILL OBJECT THEM. IN ANGLO-AMERICAN LAW ANYONE TAKING AN OATH IS REQUIRED TO HOLD THE NEW TESTAMENT (OR IF JEW, OLD TESTAMENT) IN HIS UPLIFTED-HAND AND TO ‘SWEAR BY ALMIGHTY GOD’. WHEN AN OATH RELATES NOT TO PAST EVENTS BUT TO FUTURE CONDUCT, AS IN THE CASE OF AN OATH OF ALLEGIANCE, IT IS CALLED A PROMISSORY OATH. OATHS MAY BE ADMINISTERED BY OFFICIALS APPOINTED AS NOTARIES PUBLIC OR COMMISSIONERS FOR OATHS, AND EVERY COURT, JUDGE, ARBITRATOR, OR OTHER PERSON AUTHORIZED TO HEAR EVIDENCE MAY ADMINISTER AN OATH TO A WITNESS. IN ALL CASES WHERE AN OATH IS REQUIRED THE PERSON REQUIRED TO TAKE IT MAY MAKE A SOLEMN AFFIRMATION INSTEAD, AND IN A NUMBER OF CASES A STATUTORY DECLARATION MAY NOW BE MADE IN PLACE OF AN OATH. FALSE STATEMENTS MADE IN AN OATH OR AFFIRMATION OR STATUTORY DECLARATION CONSTITUTE THE OFFENCE OF PERJURY. IT IS AN OFFENCE TO ADMINISTER AN UNLAWFUL OATH.

PERJURY=
THE OFFENCE OF MAKING A STATEMENT, KNOWING IT TO BE FALSE OR NOT BELIEVING IT TO BE TRUE, ON OATH OR AFFIRMATION, WHETHER AS A WITNESS IN COURT OR BEFORE ANY TRIBUNAL OR IN OTHER CIRCUMSTANCES WHEN AN OATH OR AFFIRMATION IS ADMINISTERED, OR IN STATUTORY DECLARATIONS, OR, EVEN WHEN NOT ON OATH OR AFFIRMATION, GIVING FALSE INFORMATION RELATING TO BIRTHS OR DEATHS OR MARRIAGE, OR MAKING FALSE REPRESENTATION TO OBTAIN REGISTRATION FOR THE PURPOSE OF CARRYING ON ANY VOCATION OR CALLING. IN MOST COUNTRIES THE STATEMENT CONSTITUTING THE OFFENCE MUST BE MATERIAL TO THE MATTER IN HAND. USUALLY A PERSON MAY NOT BE CONVICTED OF PERJURY ON THE EVIDENCE OF ONE WITNESS ONLY; CORROBORATION IS NECESSARY.

QUALIFICATION=
CAPACITY, KNOWLEDGE, OR SKILL THAT MATCHES OR SUITS AN OCCASION, OR MAKES SOMEONE ELIGIBLE FOR A DUTY, OFFICE, POSITION, PRIVILEGE, OR STATUS.
QUALIFICATION DENOTES FITNESS FOR PURPOSE THROUGH FULFILLMENT OF NECESSARY CONDITIONS SUCH AS ATTAINMENT OF A CERTAIN AGE, TAKING OF AN OATH, COMPLETION OF REQUIRED SCHOOLING OR TRAINING, OR ACQUISITION OF A DEGREE OR DIPLOMA.
A CIRCUMSTANCE OR CONDITION REQUIRED BY LAW OR CUSTOM FOR EXERCISING A RIGHT, HOLDING AN OFFICE, ETC.
A DOCUMENT WHICH SHOWS THAT SOMEONE HAS SUCCESSFULLY FINISHED A COURSE OF STUDY WHICH ALLOWS HIM OR HER TO WORK IN ONE OF THE PROFESSIONS.
A RESTRICTION OR CONDITION ON A STATEMENT.

A QUALITY OR SKILL THAT MAKES A PERSON SUITABLE FOR A PARTICULAR TASK, APPOINTMENT, JOB OR ACTIVITY.
A CONDITION THAT MUST BE COMPLIED WITH EG FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF A PRIVILEGE.
A QUALITY, ACCOMPLISHMENT OR ACQUIREMENT THAT MAKES A PERSON BEFITT FOR POST.
(ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT) A PASS OF AN EXAMINATION OR COURSE ESP ONE CONFERRING STATUS AS A RECOGNIZED PRACTITIONER OF LEGAL PROFESSION OR ACTIVITY.
THE ACTION OR FACT OF BECOMING QUALIFIED AS A RECOGNIZED PRACTITIONER OR ACTIVITY.
A QUALITY OR ACCOMPLISHMENT THAT MAKES SOMEONE SUITABLE FOR A PARTICULAR JOB OR ACTIVITY.
A CONDITION THAT MUST BE FULFILLED BEFORE A RIGHT CAN BE ACQUIRED.
AN OFFICIAL REQUIREMENT. AN OFFICIAL PROOF.
A DEGREE OR DIPLOMA.
DEGREE OF EXCELLENCE IN THE FINE (ARTS OF GOVERNMENT).
A DEGREE OF EXCELLENCE IN (PARLIAMENTARY LOBBYING).

QUALIFY=
BE ENTITLED TO A PARTICULAR BENEFIT OR PRIVILEGE BY FULFILLING A NECESSARY CONDITION.
BE OR MAKE PROPERLY ENTITLED TO BE CLASSED IN A PARTICULAR WAY.
OFFICIALLY RECOGNIZE, OR ESTABLISH (SOMEONE) AS A PRACTITIONER OF A PARTICULAR LEGAL PROFESSION OR ACTIVITY SUCH AS A PARLIAMENTARY LOBBYIST.
MAKE COMPETENT OR KNOWLEDGEABLE ENOUGH TO DO SOMETHING.
QUALIFY AS SOMETHING: TO REACH THE STANDARD OF ABILITY, KNOWLEDGE, QUALITY, ETC REQUIRED IN ORDER TO ENTER A PARTICULAR LEGAL PROFEESION. TO DESCRIBE TO MAKE OR BECOME CAPABLE OR SUITABLE TO FULFILL CONDITIONS.
BE OR MAKE PROPERLY ENTITLED TO BE CLASSED IN A PARTICULAR WAY.
TO BEFIT FOR AN OFFICE OR POSITION.
TO REACH AN ACCREDITED LEVEL OF COMPETENCE.
TO RENDER SOMEBODY LEGALLY CAPABLE OR ENTITLED.
QUALIFY SOMETHING AS SOMETHING:

TO HAVE OR CONSIDER THAT SOMETHING HAS A PARTICULAR QUALITY.

QUALITY=
A CHARACTERISTIC OR ATTRIBUTE: DEGREE OF EXCELLENCE.
HIGH STANDARD OF HIGH QUALITY.
YOUR EXCELLENCY FOR EXAMPLE.
A HIGH STANDARD OR LEVEL.
DEGREE OF EXCELLENCE: GRADE.
SUPERIORTY IN KIND: HIGH STANDARD.
HIGH SOCIAL POSITION, PECULIAR AND ESSENTIAL CHARACTER: NATURE.
AN INHERENT FEATURE. A PROPERTY
A DISTINGUISHING ATTRIBUTE: A CHARACTERISTIC.
A SPECIAL OR DISTINGUISHING FEATURE.
THE STANDARD OF SOMETHING AS MEASURED AGAINST OTHER THINGS OF A SIMILAR KIND.
THE DEGREE OF EXCELLENCE OF SOMETHING.
GENERAL EXCELLENCE OF STANDARD OR LEVEL.
(A GREAT QUALITY, LITERARY MASTERPIECE).
HIGH SOCIAL STANDING.
COMMANDING THE ADMIRATION OF PEOPLE OF QUALITY.
PEOPLE OF HIGH SOCIAL STANDING.
A DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTE OR CHARACTERISTIC POSSESSED BY SOMEONE OR SOMETHING.
I SHOW STRONG LEADERSHIP QUALITIES OF GOOD QUALITY: EXCELLENT.

PERTAIN=
(PERTAINING TO) BE APPROPRIATE, RELATED OR APPLICABLE TO MATTERS.
PERTAINING TO THE ORGANIZATION OF GOVERNMENT.
BELONG TO SOMETHING AS A PART, APPENDAGE OR ASCESSORY: TO BELONG TO :TO BE APPROPRIATE TO: TO HAVE REFERENCE.
TO BE CONNECTED WITH OR RELEVANT TO SOMETHING.
EVIDENCE PERTAINING TO THE CASE.
TO BELONG TO SOMEBODY OR SSOMETHING OR EXIST AS A PART, ATTRIBUTE, FEATURE, FUNCTION OR RIGHT.

FUNCTION=
A SPECIAL ACTIVITY OR PURPOSE OF A PERSON OR THING FULFILING A USEFUL FUNCTION SUCH AS AN IMPORTANT SOCIAL EVENT OR OFFICIAL CEREMONY.
TO WORK:TO OPERATE. FUNCTION AS SOMETHING TO WORK OR OPERATE AS SOMETHING.
TO PERFORM THE FUNCTION OF THE THING SPECIFIED .
THE PURPOSE OF A PERSON OR THING OR FOR WHICH A THING EXISTS, OR WHAT A PERSON OR THING CHARACTERISTICALLY DOES.
A QUALITY, TRAIT, OR FACT DEPENDENT ON AND VARYING WITH ANOTHER.
THE ACTIVITY CHARACTERISTIC OF A PERSON OR THING.
THE SPECIFIC PURPOSE OF A CERTAIN PERSON OR THING.
TO PERFORM A FUNCTION: TO ACT OPERATE.
FUNCTION AS FULFIL THE PURPOSE OR TASK OF A SPECIFIED THING.

PLEDGE=
A FORMAL PROMISE TO DO SOMETHING, SUCH AS THE PERFORMANCE OF AN OBLIGATION OR DUTY. SOMETHING GIVEN OR HELD AS SECURITY TO GUARANTEE PAYMENT OF A DEBT OR FULFILMENT OF AN OBLIGATION. THE CONDITION OF SOMETHING THUS GIVEN OR HELD. TO OFFER OR GUARANTEE BY A SOLEMN PROMISE. TO BIND OR SECURE BY OR AS IF BY A PLEDGE. A SOLEMN PROMISE OR UNDERTAKING. A THING GIVEN AS A TOKEN OF LOVE, FAVOUR OR LOYALTY. COMMIT (A PERSON OR ORGANIZATION) BY SOLEMN PROMISE. FORMALLY DECLARE OR PROMISE THAT SOMETHING IS OR WILL BE THE CASE. UNDERTAKE FORMALLY TO GIVE.

JUST WAR=
NOUN: JUST WAR; PLURAL NOUN: JUST WARS
A WAR THAT IS DEEMED TO BE MORALLY OR THEOLOGICALLY JUSTIFIABLE.
A MILITARY ACTION THAT IS JUSTIFIED AS BEING PERMISSIBLE FOR LEGAL OR MORAL REASONS; ALSO CALLED JUST WAR THEORY, JUST WAR TRADITION.

PRINCIPLES OF THE JUST WAR=
A JUST WAR CAN ONLY BE WAGED AS A LAST RESORT. ALL NON-VIOLENT OPTIONS MUST BE EXHAUSTED BEFORE THE USE OF FORCE CAN BE JUSTIFIED.
A WAR IS JUST ONLY IF IT IS WAGED BY A LEGITIMATE AUTHORITY. EVEN JUST CAUSES CANNOT BE SERVED BY ACTIONS TAKEN BY INDIVIDUALS OR GROUPS WHO DO NOT CONSTITUTE AN AUTHORITY SANCTIONED BY WHATEVER THE SOCIETY AND OUTSIDERS TO THE SOCIETY DEEM LEGITIMATE.
A JUST WAR CAN ONLY BE FOUGHT TO REDRESS A WRONG SUFFERED. FOR EXAMPLE, SELF-DEFENSE AGAINST AN ARMED ATTACK IS ALWAYS CONSIDERED TO BE A JUST CAUSE (ALTHOUGH THE JUSTICE
OF THE CAUSE IS NOT SUFFICIENT). FURTHER, A JUST WAR CAN ONLY BE FOUGHT WITH “RIGHT” INTENTIONS: THE ONLY PERMISSIBLE OBJECTIVE OF A JUST WAR IS TO REDRESS THE INJURY.
A WAR CAN ONLY BE JUST IF IT IS FOUGHT WITH A REASONABLE CHANCE OF SUCCESS. DEATHS AND INJURY INCURRED IN A HOPELESS CAUSE ARE NOT MORALLY JUSTIFIABLE.
THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF A JUST WAR IS TO RE-ESTABLISH PEACE. MORE SPECIFICALLY, THE PEACE ESTABLISHED AFTER THE WAR MUST BE PREFERABLE TO THE PEACE THAT WOULD HAVE PREVAILED IF THE WAR HAD NOT BEEN FOUGHT.
THE VIOLENCE USED IN THE WAR MUST BE PROPORTIONAL TO THE INJURY SUFFERED. STATES ARE PROHIBITED FROM USING FORCE NOT NECESSARY TO ATTAIN THE LIMITED OBJECTIVE OF
ADDRESSING THE INJURY SUFFERED.
THE WEAPONS USED IN WAR MUST DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN COMBATANTS AND NON-COMBATANTS. CIVILIANS ARE NEVER PERMISSIBLE TARGETS OF WAR, AND EVERY EFFORT MUST BE TAKEN TO AVOID KILLING CIVILIANS.

FEATURE=
A PROMINENT OR DISTINCTIVE PART OR CHARACTERISTIC.
TO HAVE SOMETHING OR SOMEBODY AS A CHARACTERISTIC OR FEATURE.
(FEATURE IN) TO PLAY AN IMPORTANT PART TO BE A FEATURE.
A DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTIC (AN ASPECT).
FEATURE ON SOMEBODY OR SOMETHING A SPECIAL OR PROMINENT ARTICLE OR PROGRAMME ABOUT SOMEBODY OR SOMETHING.
A DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTE OR ASPECT OF SOMETHING.
HAVE AS A PROMINENT ATTRIBUTE OR ASPECT.
HAVE AS AN IMPORTANT ACTOR OR PARTICIPANT.
(FEATURE IN) BE A SIGNIFICANT CHARACTERISTIC OF OR TAKE AN IMPORTANT PART IN.

ATTRIBUTE=
A CHARACTERISTIC OR QUALITY OF A PERSON.
SOMETHING ASSOCIATED WITH OR BELONGING TO A PERSON OR THING BY VIRTUE OF WHICH THEY ARE WHAT THEY ARE; AN INHERENT PROPERTY OR A CUSTOMARY ACCOMPLISHMENT.
TO ASCRIBE (SOMETHING OR ITS INVENTION OR ORGANIZATION) TO.
TO CREDIT WITH A PARTICULAR WORK OF ART OR OTHER PIECE OF WORK.
(ATTRIBUTE TO)) TO PUT  A HAPPENING DOWN TO A PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCE, ETC; TO ASCRIBE (SOMETHING) TO A CAUSE OR INFLUENCE.
A QUALITY REGARDED AS A NATURAL OR TYPICAL PART.
ASCRIBE A WORK OR REMARK TO A PARTICULAR AUTHOR, ARTIST, OR SPEAKER.
REGARD A QUALITY OR FEATURE AS CHARACTERISTIC.
OF OR POSESSED BY A QUALITY OR FEATURE REGARDED AS A CHARACTERISTIC OR INHERENT PART OF SOMEONE OR SOMETHING.

AUTHORIZE:
I. TO AUTHORIZE A THING.
†1. TO SET UP AS AUTHORITATIVE; TO ACKNOWLEDGE AS POSSESSING FINAL DECISIVENESS. OBS.
†2. TO GIVE LEGAL FORCE TO; TO MAKE LEGALLY VALID.
3. TO GIVE FORMAL APPROVAL TO; TO SANCTION, APPROVE, COUNTENANCE.
B. OF THINGS: TO AFFORD JUST GROUND FOR, JUSTIFY.
†4. TO VOUCH FOR THE TRUTH OR REALITY OF; TO CONFIRM BY ONE’S AUTHORITY. OBS.
II. TO AUTHORIZE A PERSON.
5. TO ENDOW WITH AUTHORITY, PLACE IN AUTHORITY; TO COMMISSION.
†B. TO HOLD AS AN AUTHORITY. OBS. RARE.
†C. TO ACCREDIT. OBS. RARE.
†D. TO PATRONIZE, COUNTENANCE. OBS. RARE.
†6. REFL. A. TO CLAIM AUTHORITY FOR ONESELF; TO PLUME ONESELF. B. TO FOUND ONE’S AUTHORITY UPON.
7. TO GIVE LEGAL OR FORMAL WARRANT TO (A PERSON) TO DO SOMETHING; TO EMPOWER, PERMIT AUTHORITATIVELY.
B. OF THINGS: TO GIVE SATISFACTORY GROUND TO.

SWORNMAN:
A MAN BOUND AND EMPOWERED BY OATH

AFFIDAVIT:
A STATEMENT MADE IN WRITING, CONFIRMED BY THE MAKER’S OATH, AND INTENDED TO BE USED AS JUDICIAL PROOF. (IN LEGAL PHRASE THE DEPONENT SWEARS AN AFFIDAVIT, THE JUDGE TAKES IT; BUT IN POPULAR USAGE THE DEPONENT MAKES OR TAKES IT.)

AUTHORITATIVE:
1. OF AUTHORITY, OF THE NATURE OF AUTHORITY, EXERCISING OR ASSUMING POWER; IMPERATIVE, DICTATORIAL, COMMANDING.
2. POSSESSING DUE OR ACKNOWLEDGED AUTHORITY; ENTITLED TO OBEDIENCE OR ACCEPTANCE.
3. PROCEEDING FROM A COMPETENT AUTHORITY.

PROOF:
B. SIGNIFICATION. I. FROM PROVE V. IN THE SENSE OF MAKING GOOD, OR SHOWING TO BE TRUE.
1. A. THAT WHICH MAKES GOOD OR PROVES A STATEMENT; EVIDENCE SUFFICIENT (OR CONTRIBUTING) TO ESTABLISH A FACT OR PRODUCE BELIEF IN THE CERTAINTY OF SOMETHING. †TO MAKE PROOF: TO HAVE WEIGHT AS EVIDENCE (OBS.).
B. LAW. (GENERALLY) EVIDENCE SUCH AS DETERMINES THE JUDGEMENT OF A TRIBUNAL. ALSO SPEC. (A) A WRITTEN DOCUMENT OR DOCUMENTS SO ATTESTED AS TO FORM LEGAL EVIDENCE. (B) A WRITTEN STATEMENT OF WHAT A WITNESS IS PREPARED TO SWEAR TO. (C) THE EVIDENCE WHICH HAS BEEN GIVEN IN A PARTICULAR CASE, AND ENTERED ON THE COURT RECORDS. (SEE ALSO 3.)
2. THE ACTION, PROCESS, OR FACT OF PROVING, OR ESTABLISHING THE TRUTH OF, A STATEMENT; THE ACTION OF EVIDENCE IN CONVINCING THE MIND; DEMONSTRATION.
3. SC. LAW. EVIDENCE GIVEN BEFORE A JUDGE, OR A COMMISSIONER REPRESENTING HIM, UPON A RECORD OR AN ISSUE FRAMED IN PLEADING; THE TAKING OF SUCH EVIDENCE BY A JUDGE IN ORDER TO A TRIAL; HENCE, TRIAL BEFORE A JUDGE INSTEAD OF BY A JURY.
†7. THAT WHICH ANYTHING PROVES OR TURNS OUT TO BE; THE ISSUE, RESULT, EFFECT, FULFILMENT; ESP. IN PHRASE TO COME TO PROOF. OBS.
8. ESP. THE FACT, CONDITION, OR QUALITY OF PROVING GOOD, TURNING OUT WELL, OR PRODUCING GOOD RESULTS; THRIVING; GOOD CONDITION, GOOD QUALITY; GOODNESS, SUBSTANCE. NOW ONLY DIAL.

EVIDENCE:
I. 1. THE QUALITY OR CONDITION OF BEING EVIDENT; CLEARNESS, EVIDENTNESS.
B. IN EVIDENCE [AFTER F. EN ÉVIDENCE]: ACTUALLY PRESENT; PROMINENT, CONSPICUOUS.
†2. MANIFESTATION; DISPLAY. OBS.
II. THAT WHICH MANIFESTS OR MAKES EVIDENT.
3. AN APPEARANCE FROM WHICH INFERENCES MAY BE DRAWN; AN INDICATION, MARK, SIGN, TOKEN, TRACE. ALSO †TO TAKE EVIDENCE: TO PROGNOSTICATE. TO BEAR, GIVE EVIDENCE: TO AFFORD INDICATIONS.
5. GROUND FOR BELIEF; TESTIMONY OR FACTS TENDING TO PROVE OR DISPROVE ANY CONCLUSION. CONST. FOR, OF (THE THING TO BE PROVED), FROM, OF (THE SOURCE OF TESTIMONY). †TO HAVE EVIDENCE TO SAY, ETC.: TO HAVE GOOD GROUNDS FOR SAYING, ETC. (FOR EXTERNAL, INTERNAL, MORAL, PROBABLE EVIDENCE, SEE THESE ADJS.).
†B. AN EVIDENCE: SOMETHING SERVING AS A PROOF. OBS. CF. 8.
6. INFORMATION, WHETHER IN THE FORM OF PERSONAL TESTIMONY, THE LANGUAGE OF DOCUMENTS, OR THE PRODUCTION OF MATERIAL OBJECTS, THAT IS GIVEN IN A LEGAL INVESTIGATION, TO ESTABLISH THE FACT OR POINT IN QUESTION. ALSO, AN EVIDENCE = A PIECE OF EVIDENCE. PHRASES TO BEAR, GIVE IN, GIVE EVIDENCE. TO CALL IN EVIDENCE: TO CALL AS A WITNESS. FOR CIRCUMSTANTIAL, PAROLE, PRESUMPTIVE, PRIMÂ FACIE, VERBAL, ETC. EVIDENCE, SEE THESE ADJS.
B. THE EVIDENCE: THE TESTIMONY WHICH IN ANY PARTICULAR CAUSE HAS BEEN RECEIVED BY THE COURT AND ENTERED ON ITS RECORDS. SIMILARLY, TO BE OR PRODUCE IN EVIDENCE: TO BE A PART, OR TO PRODUCE AS A PART, OF THE EVIDENCE BEFORE THE COURT.
C. STATEMENTS OR PROOFS ADMISSIBLE AS TESTIMONY IN A COURT OF LAW.
†8. A DOCUMENT BY MEANS OF WHICH A FACT IS ESTABLISHED (SEE QUOT. 1628); ESP. TITLE-DEEDS. (IN 15–16TH C. OFTEN IN COLLECTIVE SENSE = ‘DOCUMENTS’; SOMETIMES WITH A NUMERAL, AS IF MISTAKEN FOR AN ACTUAL PLURAL. CF. EVIDENT.) OBS. EXC. HIST. AND IN LEGAL FORMULÆ.
1. TRANS. OF THINGS: TO SERVE AS EVIDENCE FOR; TO ATTEST, PROVE. RARELY INTR. TO EVIDENCE TO.
2. OF PERSONS: TO SUPPORT BY ONE’S TESTIMONY, ATTEST (A FACT OR STATEMENT).
†3. TO ESTABLISH BY EVIDENCE; TO MAKE EVIDENT, DEMONSTRATE, PROVE. WITH SIMPLE OBJ., OBJ. SENTENCE, OR INF. OBS.
4. WITH REFERENCE TO LEGAL EVIDENCE.
†A. TO GIVE EVIDENCE AGAINST (A PERSON). OBS.
5. TO GIVE EVIDENCE OR INDICATION OF; TO INDICATE, MANIFEST. CONST. WITH N. OR REFL. PRON. AS OBJ., ALSO WITH COMPLEMENTARY INF. OR WITH OBJ. SENTENCE.

INFRINGE:
2. TO COMMIT A BREACH OR INFRACTION OF (A LAW, OBLIGATION, RIGHT, ETC.); TO VIOLATE OR BREAK (AN OATH, PLEDGE, TREATY, ETC.); TO TRANSGRESS, CONTRAVENE.
†4. TO BREAK THE FORCE OR DIMINISH THE STRENGTH OF; TO WEAKEN, ENFEEBLE, IMPAIR; TO MITIGATE. OBS.
5. INTR. TO BREAK IN OR ENCROACH ON OR UPON.

INFRINGEMENT:
THE ACT OR FACT OF INFRINGING.
1. A BREAKING OR BREACH (OF A LAW, OBLIGATION, RIGHT, ETC.); BREACH, VIOLATION.
B. A BREAKING IN, ENCROACHMENT, OR INTRUSION.

VIOLATE:
1. TRANS. TO BREAK, INFRINGE, OR TRANSGRESS UNJUSTIFIABLY; TO FAIL DULY TO KEEP OR OBSERVE: A. AN OATH OR PROMISE, ONE’S FAITH, ETC.
B. A LAW, COMMANDMENT, RULE, ETC.
C. ABSTRACT AND MORAL QUALITIES, ETC.
7. TO TREAT WITHOUT PROPER RESPECT OR REGARD; TO DO VIOLENCE OR INJURY TO (FEELINGS, ETC.) IN THIS WAY.

VIOLATION:
THE ACTION OF VIOLATING, IN VARIOUS SENSES.
1. A. INFRINGEMENT OR BREACH, FLAGRANT DISREGARD OR NON-OBSERVANCE, OF SOME PRINCIPLE OR STANDARD OF CONDUCT OR PROCEDURE, AS AN OATH, PROMISE, LAW, ETC.; AN INSTANCE OF THIS.
(B) IN MOD. USE CHIEFLY U.S., ESP. = AN INFRINGEMENT OF THE LAW.

AUTHENTIC:
†1. A. OF AUTHORITY, AUTHORITATIVE (PROPERLY AS POSSESSING ORIGINAL OR INHERENT AUTHORITY, BUT ALSO AS DULY AUTHORIZED); ENTITLED TO OBEDIENCE OR RESPECT. OBS.
†B. OF PERSONS. OBS.
†2. A. LEGALLY VALID, HAVING LEGAL FORCE. OBS.
†B. OF PERSONS: LEGALLY OR DULY QUALIFIED, AUTHORIZED, LICENSED. OBS.
3. A. ENTITLED TO ACCEPTANCE OR BELIEF, AS BEING IN ACCORDANCE WITH FACT, OR AS STATING FACT; RELIABLE, TRUSTWORTHY, OF ESTABLISHED CREDIT. (THE PREVAILING SENSE; OFTEN USED IN CONTRADISTINCTION TO GENUINE, ESP. BY WRITERS ON CHRISTIAN EVIDENCES, WHILE OTHERS IDENTIFY ‘AUTHENTIC’ AND ‘GENUINE.’ SEE SENSE 6.)
B. OF PERSONS (OR AGENTS).
5. REAL, ACTUAL, ‘GENUINE.’ (OPPOSED TO IMAGINARY, PRETENDED.) ARCH.
6. REALLY PROCEEDING FROM ITS REPUTED SOURCE OR AUTHOR; OF UNDISPUTED ORIGIN, GENUINE. (OPPOSED TO COUNTERFEIT, FORGED, APOCRYPHAL. CF. NOTE, SENSE 3.)
†1. AN AUTHORITATIVE BOOK OR DOCUMENT. OBS.
†2. AN ORIGINAL (DOCUMENT). OBS.
†4. ONE WHOSE OPINION IS ENTITLED TO ACCEPTANCE; AN AUTHORITY. OBS. RARE.

AUTHENTICALLY:
1. WITH AUTHORITY, AUTHORITATIVELY; WITH LEGAL VALIDITY, IN PROPER LEGAL FORM. OBS.
2. WITH EVIDENCE OF TRUTH OR CERTAINTY, SO AS TO BE ACCEPTED OR RELIED UPON; CREDIBLY.
3. ACTUALLY, GENUINELY, REALLY.

AUTHENTICATE:
TO MAKE OR PROVE AUTHENTIC.
1. TRANS. AND REFL. TO INVEST (A THING) WITH AUTHORITY; TO RENDER AUTHORITATIVE.
2. TO GIVE LEGAL VALIDITY TO; TO RENDER VALID, ESTABLISH THE VALIDITY OF.
3. TO ESTABLISH THE TITLE TO CREDIBILITY AND ACCEPTANCE: A. OF A STATEMENT, OR B. OF A REPUTED FACT.
4. TO ESTABLISH THE CLAIMS OF (ANYTHING) TO A PARTICULAR CHARACTER OR AUTHORSHIP; TO ESTABLISH THE GENUINENESS OF; TO CERTIFY THE AUTHORSHIP OF.

AUTHENTICATED:
INVESTED WITH AUTHORITY, VALIDITY, CORRECTNESS, TRUTH, GENUINENESS; CERTIFIED.

AUTHENTICATOR:
HE WHO AUTHENTICATES, WHO GUARANTEES A THING AS VALID, TRUE, OR RELIABLE.

AUTHENTICITY:
THE QUALITY OF BEING AUTHENTIC, OR ENTITLED TO ACCEPTANCE,
1. AS BEING AUTHORITATIVE OR DULY AUTHORIZED.
2. AS BEING IN ACCORDANCE WITH FACT, AS BEING TRUE IN SUBSTANCE.
3. AS BEING WHAT IT PROFESSES IN ORIGIN OR AUTHORSHIP, AS BEING GENUINE; GENUINENESS.
4. AS BEING REAL, ACTUAL; REALITY.

TESTIMONY:
1. A. PERSONAL OR DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE OR ATTESTATION IN SUPPORT OF A FACT OR STATEMENT; HENCE, ANY FORM OF EVIDENCE OR PROOF.
B. ANY OBJECT OR ACT SERVING AS PROOF OR EVIDENCE.
†2. A WRITTEN CERTIFICATE, A TESTIMONIAL. OBS.
5. A. OPEN ATTESTATION OR ACKNOWLEDGEMENT; CONFESSION, PROFESSION.

CERTIFICATE:
CERTIFIED, ASSURED.
†1. THE ACTION OR FACT OF CERTIFYING OR GIVING ASSURANCE; CERTIFICATION. OBS.
†2. THE ACTION WHEREBY A RESPONSIBLE PERSON OR PERSONS ATTEST A FACT WITHIN THEIR KNOWLEDGE; CERTIFICATION, ATTESTATION. OBS.
3. A. A DOCUMENT WHEREIN A FACT IS FORMALLY CERTIFIED OR ATTESTED.
B. ESP. A DOCUMENT CERTIFYING THE STATUS OR ACQUIREMENTS OF THE BEARER, OR HIS FULFILMENT OF CONDITIONS WHICH AUTHORIZE HIM TO ACT OR PRACTISE IN A SPECIFIED WAY; HENCE, OFTEN EQUAL TO LICENCE.
C. IN A MORE GENERAL SENSE: ANYTHING WHICH HAS THE FORCE OR EFFECT OF THE PRECEDING; A CERTIFICATION.
4. LAW. A WRITING MADE IN ONE COURT, BY WHICH NOTICE OF ITS PROCEEDINGS IS GIVEN TO ANOTHER, USUALLY BY WAY OF TRANSCRIPT. TRIAL BY CERTIFICATE: A FORM OF TRIAL IN WHICH THE TESTIMONY OF FACTS AS CERTIFIED BY ANOTHER COURT, OR BY ANY PROPER AUTHORITY, DECIDES THE POINT AT ISSUE.
1. TRANS. TO ATTEST (A FACT) BY A CERTIFICATE.
2. TO FURNISH (A PERSON) WITH A CERTIFICATE. (TO CERTIFICATE OUT OF: CF. ARGUE V. 8, 9.)
3. TO LICENSE OR AUTHORIZE BY CERTIFICATE.

CERTIFY:
 1. TRANS. TO MAKE (A THING) CERTAIN; TO GUARANTEE AS CERTAIN, ATTEST IN AN AUTHORITATIVE MANNER; TO GIVE CERTAIN INFORMATION OF. (OFTEN WITH CLAUSE AS OBJECT.)
2. A. TO DECLARE OR ATTEST BY A FORMAL OR LEGAL CERTIFICATE. (OFTEN WITH COMPL. INF., OR OBJ. CLAUSE.)
3. A. TO MAKE (A PERSON) CERTAIN OR SURE (OF A MATTER); TO ASSURE, INFORM CERTAINLY; TO GIVE (A PERSON) LEGAL OR FORMAL ATTESTATION (OF).
C. REFL. TO MAKE ONESELF CERTAIN, INFORM ONESELF CERTAINLY; TO ASCERTAIN.
4. A. INTR. TO MAKE CERTIFICATION; TO TESTIFY TO, VOUCH FOR.

TESTIFIED:
ATTESTED; MADE KNOWN, DECLARED.

TESTIFY:
1. TRANS. TO BEAR WITNESS TO, OR GIVE PROOF OF (A FACT); TO ASSERT OR AFFIRM THE TRUTH OF (A STATEMENT); TO ATTEST.
2. TRANSF. OF THINGS: A. TRANS. TO SERVE AS EVIDENCE OF; TO CONSTITUTE PROOF OR TESTIMONY OF. B. INTR. AND ABSOL.
3. TRANS. TO PROFESS AND OPENLY ACKNOWLEDGE (A FACT, BELIEF, OBJECT OF FAITH OR DEVOTION, ETC.); TO PROCLAIM AS SOMETHING THAT ONE KNOWS OR BELIEVES. CHIEFLY BIBLICAL. B. INTR. TO BEAR TESTIMONY.
4. INTR. AND TRANS. TO DECLARE SOLEMNLY; = PROTEST V. 1. OBS. EXC. IN BIBLICAL USE.
5. TRANS. TO GIVE EVIDENCE OF, DISPLAY, MANIFEST, EXPRESS (DESIRE, EMOTION, ETC.). OBS. OR ARCH.
A CERTIFICATE OR TESTIMONY.

TESTIMONIAL:
A. ADJ. A. (NOW ARCH. OR TECHNICAL.) OF, PERTAINING TO, OR OF THE NATURE OF TESTIMONY; SERVING AS EVIDENCE; CONDUCIVE TO PROOF. TESTIMONIAL PROOF, PROOF BY THE TESTIMONY OF A WITNESS; PAROLE EVIDENCE. (QUOT. C 1430 MAY BELONG TO THE N.)
†B. LETTER TESTIMONIAL, RARELY TESTIMONIAL LETTER (USUALLY PL. LETTERS TESTIMONIAL(S): A LETTER TESTIFYING TO THE BONA FIDES OF THE BEARER; CREDENTIALS; = B. 3. OBS.
†1. VERBAL OR DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE; = TESTIMONY N. 1. OBS.
†2. SOMETHING SERVING AS PROOF OR EVIDENCE; A TOKEN, RECORD, MANIFESTATION. OBS.
†3. A. A WRITTEN ATTESTATION BY SOME AUTHORIZED OR RESPONSIBLE PERSON OR PERSONS, TESTIFYING TO THE TRUTH OF SOMETHING; AN AFFIDAVIT, ACKNOWLEDGEMENT; A CERTIFICATE; SPEC. AN OFFICIAL WARRANT; A PASSPORT (AS GIVEN TO VAGRANTS, LABOURERS, DISCHARGED SOLDIERS OR SAILORS, ETC.); A DIPLOMA; A CREDENTIAL OR OTHER AUTHENTICATING DOCUMENT. OBS.
4. A WRITING TESTIFYING TO ONE’S QUALIFICATIONS AND CHARACTER, WRITTEN USUALLY BY A PRESENT OR FORMER EMPLOYER, OR BY SOME RESPONSIBLE PERSON WHO IS COMPETENT TO JUDGE; A LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION OF A PERSON OR THING. (THE CURRENT SENSE.)

ATTESTATION:
1. THE ACTION OF BEARING WITNESS; THE TESTIMONY BORNE; EVIDENCE, PROOF.
B. FORMAL TESTIMONY OR CONFIRMATION BY SIGNATURE, OATH, ETC.; ESP. THE VERIFICATION OF THE EXECUTION OF A DEED OR WILL BY THE SIGNATURE OF THE TESTATOR IN THE PRESENCE OF WITNESSES.
3. THE ADMINISTRATION OF AN OATH, E.G. OF THE OATH OF ALLEGIANCE TO A MILITARY RECRUIT.

ATTEST:
1. A. TRANS. TO BEAR WITNESS TO, AFFIRM THE TRUTH OR GENUINENESS OF; TO TESTIFY, CERTIFY. CONST. SIMPLE OBJ., SUBORD. CLAUSE, INF. PHR., OR ABSOL.
B. FORMALLY (A) BY SIGNATURE, (B) BY OATH.
2. TRANSF. OF THINGS: TO BE EVIDENCE OR PROOF OF, TESTIFY TO, VOUCH FOR.
3. INTR. TO BEAR WITNESS, TESTIFY TO.
5. TO PUT (A MAN) ON HIS OATH; TECHN. AMONG ‘FRIENDS,’ TO PUT HIM ON HIS SOLEMN DECLARATION. ALSO, TO ADMINISTER THE OATH OF ALLEGIANCE TO A MILITARY RECRUIT (SEE QUOT. 1812); USED ESP. IN CONNECTION WITH THE ‘DERBY SCHEME’ OF 1915. ALSO INTR., TO ENROL ONESELF AS READY FOR MILITARY SERVICE WHEN CALLED UP.
1. EVIDENCE, TESTIMONY, WITNESS.
2. ATTESTING SIGNATURE, ATTESTATION.

ATTESTED:
A. SWORN, VOUCHED FOR, CERTIFIED, PROVED.

AUTHORITATIVE:
1. OF AUTHORITY, OF THE NATURE OF AUTHORITY, EXERCISING OR ASSUMING POWER; IMPERATIVE, DICTATORIAL, COMMANDING.
2. POSSESSING DUE OR ACKNOWLEDGED AUTHORITY; ENTITLED TO OBEDIENCE OR ACCEPTANCE.
3. PROCEEDING FROM A COMPETENT AUTHORITY.

AUTHORITY:
I. POWER TO ENFORCE OBEDIENCE.
1. A. POWER OR RIGHT TO ENFORCE OBEDIENCE; MORAL OR LEGAL SUPREMACY; THE RIGHT TO COMMAND, OR GIVE AN ULTIMATE DECISION.
B. IN AUTHORITY: IN A POSITION OF POWER; IN POSSESSION OF POWER OVER OTHERS.
2. A. DERIVED OR DELEGATED POWER; CONFERRED RIGHT OR TITLE; AUTHORIZATION.
(THE RELATION TO SENSE 1 IS SEEN IN ‘BY THE (KING’S) AUTHORITY, BY AUTHORITY OF THE KING.’)
B. WITH INF. CONFERRED RIGHT TO DO SOMETHING.
3. THOSE IN AUTHORITY; THE BODY OR PERSONS EXERCISING POWER OR COMMAND.
II. POWER TO INFLUENCE ACTION, OPINION, BELIEF.
4. POWER TO INFLUENCE THE CONDUCT AND ACTIONS OF OTHERS; PERSONAL OR PRACTICAL INFLUENCE.
5. POWER OVER, OR TITLE TO INFLUENCE, THE OPINIONS OF OTHERS; AUTHORITATIVE OPINION; WEIGHT OF JUDGEMENT OR OPINION, INTELLECTUAL INFLUENCE.
6. POWER TO INSPIRE BELIEF, TITLE TO BE BELIEVED; AUTHORITATIVE STATEMENT; WEIGHT OF TESTIMONY. SOMETIMES WEAKENED TO: AUTHORSHIP, TESTIMONY.
7. THE QUOTATION OR BOOK ACKNOWLEDGED, OR ALLEGED, TO SETTLE A QUESTION OF OPINION OR GIVE CONCLUSIVE TESTIMONY.
8. A. THE PERSON WHOSE OPINION OR TESTIMONY IS ACCEPTED; THE AUTHOR OF AN ACCEPTED STATEMENT. B. ONE WHOSE OPINION ON OR UPON A SUBJECT IS ENTITLED TO BE ACCEPTED; AN EXPERT IN ANY QUESTION.

RENDER:
THE ACT OF PERFORMING A SERVICE.
TO HAND OVER, DELIVER, COMMEND, OR COMMIT, TO ANOTHER; TO GIVE, IN VARIOUS SENSES, TO GRSANT , CONCEDE.
TO MAKE, TO CAUSE TO BE OR BECOME, OF A CERTAIN NATURE, QUALITY, ETC.
TO BRING (ONE) INTO A STATE OR CONDITION (OBS); ALSO TO CAUSE TO BE IN A CERTAIN STATE. RARE.

GRANT:
THE ACTION OF GRANTING; THE THING GRANTED.
†1. A. CONSENT, PERMISSION. B. PROMISE. C. ADMISSION, ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. ALSO, WHAT IS AGREED TO, PROMISED, ADMITTED, ETC. OBS.
2. THE ACTION OF ACCORDING (A REQUEST, A FAVOUR ASKED FOR).
3. A. AN AUTHORITATIVE BESTOWAL OR CONFERMENT OF A PRIVILEGE, RIGHT, OR POSSESSION; A GIFT OR ASSIGNMENT OF MONEY, ETC. BY THE ACT OF AN ADMINISTRATIVE BODY OR OF A PERSON IN CONTROL OF A FUND OR THE LIKE.
4. LAW. A. A CONVEYANCE BY DEED OR OTHER WRITTEN INSTRUMENT. †B. FORMERLY IN MORE RESTRICTED APPLICATION: A CONVEYANCE OF SUCH PROPERTY (VIZ. INCORPOREAL HEREDITAMENTS) AS CAN PASS ONLY BY DEED. TO BE OR LIE IN GRANT: (OF PROPERTY) TO BE OF A NATURE TRANSFERABLE ONLY BY DEED.
†1. INTR. TO AGREE, CONSENT; TO ASSENT TO THE REQUEST OF (A PERSON: CONST. DAT.); TO AGREE OR CONSENT TO OR TO DO (RARELY AT DO) SOMETHING. OBS.
2. TRANS. TO AGREE TO, PROMISE, UNDERTAKE. †A. CONST. DAT. OF PERSON, AND ACC. OF THING. OBS.
B. WITH INF. (PRECEDED BY TO) OR CLAUSE AS OBJ. OBS. EXC. IN LEGAL DOCUMENTS.
3. TO ACCEDE TO, CONSENT TO FULFIL (A REQUEST, PRAYER, WISH, ETC.).
4. A. TO ALLOW OR CONCEDE AS AN INDULGENCE; TO PERMIT OR SUFFER (A PERSON) TO HAVE (SOMETHING); TO BESTOW OR CONFER AS A FAVOUR, OR IN ANSWER TO A REQUEST. CONST. DAT. OF PERSON, AND ACC. OF THING.
†B. WITH A THING AS SUBJ. OR AS INDIRECT OBJ.: TO ALLOW TO HAVE. OBS.
†C. TO SANCTION, PERMIT (AN ACTION). OBS.
5. A. TO BESTOW OR CONFER (A POSSESSION, RIGHT, ETC.) BY A FORMAL ACT. SAID OF A SOVEREIGN OR SUPREME AUTHORITY, A COURT OF JUSTICE, A REPRESENTATIVE ASSEMBLY, ETC. ALSO, IN LAW, TO TRANSFER (PROPERTY) FROM ONESELF TO ANOTHER PERSON, ESPECIALLY BY DEED.
B. WITH ADVS., IN TECHNICAL PHRASES: TO GRANT (LAND, A TITLE) AWAY, OUT. †TO GRANT FORTH (A WARRANT): TO ISSUE.
†6. TO YIELD, GIVE UP. ALSO WITH OVER. OBS.
7. TO ADMIT, CONFESS, ACKNOWLEDGE. NOW ONLY IN A MORE RESTRICTED USE: TO CONCEDE TO AN ACTUAL OR HYPOTHETICAL OPPONENT (A PROPOSITION) TO BE USED AS A BASIS OF ARGUMENT. A. WITH OBJ. EITHER ACC. WITH INF. OR A CLAUSE INTRODUCED BY THAT (OFTEN SUPPRESSED), RARELY HOW. IN THIS SENSE THE IMPERATIVE MOOD, THE PRES. PPLE. (USED ABSOL.) AND THE PA. PPLE. OFTEN INTRODUCE AN ADVERBIAL (CONCESSIVE) CLAUSE.
C. WITH OBJ. AND COMPLEMENT: TO ADMIT OR CONCEDE (A PERSON OR THING) TO BE SO AND SO. RARE. D. TO ADMIT THE EXISTENCE OF. OBS. RARE—1.

 

ACCREDITED=
 OFFICIALLY APPOINTED OR RECOGNIZED.
OUR ACCREDITED REPRESENTIVE.
OFFICIALLY DECLARED TO BE OF THE DESIRED QUALITY OR STANDARD.
GENERALLY ACCEPTED OR BELIEVED.
TO GIVE CREDIT OR AUTHORITY TO.
TO HAVE CONFIDENCE IN; TO AUTHORIZE: TO STAMP WITH AUTHORITY; TO BELIEVE AND ACCEPT AS TRUE.
AUTHORIZED OFFICIALLY; ACCEPT AS VALID; CERTIFIED AS BEING OF A PRESCRIBED QUALITY.
TO GIVE CREDIT TO SOMEONE FOR SOMETHING.
(ACCREDIT SOMETHING TO) ATTRIBUTE AN ACTION, SAYING OR QUALITY TO.
(OF AN OFFICIAL BODY) GIVE AUTHORITY OR SANCTION TO SOMEONE OR SOMETHING WHEN REGOGNIZED STANDARDS HAVE BEEN MET.
ACCREDITED AN ACCREDITED PRACTIONER.
GIVE OFFICIAL AUTHORIZATION FOR SOMEONE, TYPICALLY A DIPLOMAT OR JOURNALIST TO BE IN A PARTICULAR PLACE OR HOLD A PARTICULAR POST.

MERITOCRACY=
GOVERNMENT BY THE HOLDING OF POWER BY PEOPLE SELECTED ACCORDING TO MERIT.
A SOCIETY GOVERNED BY PEOPLE SELECTED ACCORDING TO MERIT.
A RULING OR INFLUENTIAL CLASS OF EDUCATED OR ABLE PEOPLE.
A COUNTRY, GOVERNMENT OR SOCIAL SYSTEM IN WHICH PEOPLE OF HIGH ABILITY OR INTELLIGENCE GET THE GREATEST REWARDS ESP POLITICAL POWER.
(SUCH PEOPLE IN SOCIETY.)

LOBBY=
A GROUP OF PEOPLE WHO TRY TO INFLUENCE POLITICIANS ON A PARTICULAR ISSUE.
LOBBY SOMEBODY FOR SOMETHING= TO TRY TO PERSUADE A POLITICIAN TO SUPPORT OR OPPOSE CHANGES TO THE LAW.

LOBBYIST=
A PERSON WHO TRIES TO INFLUENCE LEGISLATION ON BEHALF OF A SPECIAL INTEREST; A MEMBER OF A LOBBY.
A PERSON EMPLOYED BY A PARTICULAR INTEREST TO LOBBY.

LOBBYING=
ANY ATTEMPT BY A GROUP OR INDIVIDUAL TO INFLUENCE THE DECISIONS OF GOVERNMENT. THE EFFORT MAY BE A DIRECT APPEAL TO A DECISION MAKER IN EITHER THE EXECUTIVE OR LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES, OR IT MAY BE INDIRECT (E.G., THROUGH ATTEMPTS TO INFLUENCE PUBLIC OPINION). IT MAY INCLUDE ORAL OR WRITTEN EFFORTS OF PERSUASION, CAMPAIGN CONTRIBUTIONS, PUBLIC-RELATIONS CAMPAIGNS, RESEARCH SUPPLIED TO LEGISLATIVE COMMITEES, AND FORMAL TESTIMONY BEFORE SUCH COMMITTEES. A LOBBYIST MAY BE A MEMBER OF A SPECIAL INTEREST GROUP, A PROFESSIONAL WILLING TO REPRESENT ANY GROUP, OR A PRIVATE INDIVIDUAL.

 OFFICIAL SECRETS ACT.

PEOPLE ENGAGED IN GOVERNMENT WORK OFTEN ARE ASKED TO SIGN AN OFFICIAL SECRETS ACT DECLARATION.

GROUNDS FOR COMPLAINTS:
DISCRIMINATION:
GOVERNMENT AND LOCAL AUTHORITY DEPARTMENTS ARE EXPECTED TO TREAT EVERYONE IN THE SAME WAY WITHOUT DISCRIMINATION FOR RACE, SEX, RELIGION, SOCIAL STATUS OR ANYTHING ELSE. AN OMBUDSMAN CAN LOOK AT DEPARTMENT FILES TO REASSURE HIMSELF ON THIS POINT.

MISBEHAVIOUR:
OFFICIALS HAVE BEEN REPROVED FOR RUDENESS OR INCONSIDERATE BEHAVIOUR.

PROCEDURE:

A HOSPITAL WAS CRITICISED BY AN OMBUDSMAN FOR ADMITTING A MENTALLY ILL PERSON WITHOUT FOLLOWING THE STATUTORY PROCEDURE FOR DEALING WITH MENTAL DISORDERS.

COMPLAIN TO THE OMBUDSMAN:

·         PARLIAMENTARY OMBUDSMAN OFFICIALLY KNOWN AS THE PARLIAMENTARY COMMISSIONER FOR ADMINISTRATION – JOB OF INVESTIGATING CENTRAL GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS, ALSO ACTS AS HEALTH OMBUDSMAN.

·         THE HEALTH OMBUDSMAN OFFICIALLY KNOWN AS (HEALTH SERVICE COMMISSION) – JOB OF INVESTIGATING COMPLAINTS ABOUT HEALTH SERVICE.

SERIOUS COMPLAINTS ABOUT THE DOCTOR AND TREATMENT:
CONTACT SERVICE COMMITTEE:

COMPLAINTS ABOUT THE DOCTOR CONCERNING SERIOUS PROFESSIONAL MISCONDUCT SUCH AS MISDIAGNOSES, NEGLIGENCE, MALADMINISTRATION, DEFAMATION, LIBEL AND SLANDER, WRITE TO AND CONTACT THE REGISTRAR OF THE GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL.

WRITE TO HOSPITAL SECRETARY OR A DISTRICT OFFICIAL, SUCH AS SECTOR ADMINISTRATOR IN CHARGE OF HOSPITAL. IF STILL NOT SATISFIED WRITE TO THE AREA ADMINISTRATOR AT THE AREA HEALTH AUTHORITY.

FOR LATE COMPLAINTS CONTACT AND APPEAL TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR SOCIAL SERVICES.

FOR HELP IN WRITING COMPLAINTS CONTACT LOCAL COMMUNITY HEALTH COUNCIL OR THE PATIENTS ASSOCIATION, SUCH AS A SOLICITOR.

MENTAL HEALTH REVIEW TRIBUNAL
THE TRIBUNAL’S POWERS

A MENTAL HEALTH REVIEW TRIBUNAL CAN TAKE EVIDENCE ON OATH. IT CAN ORDER WITNESSES TO APPEAR AND TO PRODUCE DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE.

IF A TRIBUNAL FINDS THAT A PATIENT’S DISORDER IS WRONGLY CLASSIFIED, IT CAN DIRECT THAT THE CLASSIFICATION BE CHANGED.

RECLASSIFICATION FROM A MAJOR TO A MINOR DISORDER LEAD TO A PATIENT’S AUTOMATIC DISCHARGE AT THE AGE OF 25 IF THE PATIENT IS NOT LIKELY TO ACT DANGEROUSLY IF RELEASED.

THE HIGH COURT CAN QUASH A TRIBUNAL DECISION IF IT IS SHOWN TO BE WRONG IN LAW, CONCERNING POINTS OF LAW – (LEGAL ADVISE NEED TO BE SOUGHT).

ANYONE WHO THINKS A TRIBUNAL HAS ACTED UNFAIRLY OR SHOWN BIAS CAN ASK THE HIGH COURT TO REVIEW THE CASE.

EVIDENCE:
EVIDENCE IN A COURT CASE CONSISTS OF THE FACTS OF THE CASE AS GIVEN ON OATH.

HERESAY EVIDENCE:
EVIDENCE THAT IS HEARSAY OR SECOND-HAND IS GENERALLY INADMISSIBLE IN COURT.

CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE:
WHEN EVIDENCE DOES NOT DIRECTLY ESTABLISH THE EXISTENCE OF THE VITAL FACTS IN A CASE BUT INDIRECTLY POINTS TO THEIR EXISTENCE. IT IS KNOWN AS CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE.

HABEAS CORPUS:
HABEAS CORPUS IS A WRIT: CAN BE ISSUED BY ANY HIGH COURT JUDGE. ANYONE APPLYING FOR A WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS MUST PRODUCE AN OATH OR AFFIDAVIT BEFORE THE JUDGE EXPLAINING THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF A PERSONS DETENTION. APART FROM POLICE CASES, EXAMPLES OF SITUATIONS IN WHICH THE HABEAS CORPUS PROCEDURE CAN BE USED ARE: WHERE A PERSON IS HELD UNLAWFULLY IN A MENTAL HOSPITAL. IT DEMANDS THAT THE PERSON NAMED IN IT BE BROUGHT BEFORE THE JUDGE, WHO THEN DECIDES WHETHER THE PERSON IS BEING UNLAWFULLY IMPRISONED OR DETAINED. THE PROCEDURE IS NORMALLY USED WHEN SOMEONE HAS BEEN DETAINED FOR A LONG TIME. THE WRIT CAN HOWEVER BE SOUGHT AFTER ANY PERIOD OF DETENTION.

HABEAS CORPUS APPLICATION MUST NORMALLY BE MADE TO THE COURT OFFICE OF THE QUEEN’S BENCH DIVISION OF THE HIGH COURT IN LONDON.

FALSE IMPRISONMENT:
ASK FOR APPLICATION FROM HIGH COURT QUEENS DIVISION FOR HABEAS CORPUS WRIT.

OATH:
HOW OATHS ARE VALID?
OATHS AND AFFIRMATIONS ARE BINDING EVEN IF A MISTAKE IS MADE IN THE FORMAL WORDS OF PROCEDURE. SOMEONE WHO TAKES AN OATH CANNOT LATER CLAIM THAT IT WAS NOT BINDING BECAUSE HE DOES NOT BELIEVE IN GOD.

OBSTRUCTION:
MEMBERS OF STAFF CAN BE PROSECUTED FOR OBSTRUCTING THE EXECUTION OF MY DUTY.

PRIVATE BILL:
A PRIVATE BILL IS INTRODUCE BY AN OUTSIDE BODY OR INDIVIDUAL TO ALTER OR INCREASE THEIR POWERS. FOR EXAMPLE: (A BILL INTRODUCED STATING THE IMPERATOR CAN DO NO WRONG).

LIBEL AND SLANDER:
IF THE OFFENDING REMARKS ARE IN WRITING OR SOME OTHER PERMANENT FORM THE DEFAMATION IS LIBEL.
FOR A LIBEL OR SLANDER ACTION TO STAND A CHANCE OF SUCCESS, THE PERSON BRINGING THE CASE, THE PLAINTIFF MUST, PROVE THAT WHAT WAS SAID:

1) WAS DEFAMATORY.

2) REFERRED TO HIM.

3) WAS COMMUNICATED TO A THIRD PERSON.

THERE IS A GENERAL PRINCIPLE, HOWEVER, THAT A STATEMENT IS LIBELLOUS OR SLANDEROUS IF IT DAMAGES THE REPUTATION OF THE PLAINTIFF, OR TENDS TO LOWER HIM IN THE EYES OF ORDINARY MEN AND WOMEN.

FROM THAT STANDPOINT, IT IS PARTICULARLY DANGEROUS, FOR EXAMPLE, TO CRITICISE SOMEONE’S MORALS OR HONESTY, OR ACCUSE HIM OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR OR PROFESSIONAL INCOMPETENCE.

DEFAMATION BY INNUENDO:
A STATEMENT THAT SEEMS INNOCENT CAN STILL LEAD TO A LIBEL OR SLANDER ACTION, IF PEOPLE READING OR HEARING IT ARE ABLE TO DRAW AN INFERENCE THAT IS DEFAMATORY.

IDENTIFYING THE PERSON DEFAMED:
AN ACTION FOR DEFAMATION CANNOT SUCCEED UNLESS THE OFFENDING STATEMENT EITHER NAMES THE PLAINTIFF OR IS PUT IN SUCH A WAY THAT ORDINARY PEOPLE KNOW TO WHOM IT REFERS.

PUBLICATION MUST BE PROVED:
FOR LIBEL OR SLANDER ACTION TO SUCCEED, IT MUST BE SHOWN THAT THE DEFAMATORY MATERIAL WAS PUBLIISHED – THAT IS, COMMUNICATED TO A THIRD PERSON – IN WRITING OR BY MOUTH.

BUT IF SHE RAISES HER VOICE OR SOMEONE ELSE OVERHEARS THE ACCUSATION, THAT IS DEFAMATION.

WHEN IS LIBEL IS A CRIME:
LIBEL BUT NEVER SLANDER CAN ALSO BE A CRIMINAL OFFENCE. CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS SHOULD BE TAKEN ONLY WHERE THE LIBEL IS LIKELY TO CAUSE A BREACH OF THE PEACE OR IS A SERIOUS ATTACK ON THE VICTIM’S CHARACTER.

JUSTIFICATION, ON THE GROUND THAT THE STATEMENT IS TRUE, IS NO DEFENCE, UNLESS THE STATEMENT IS SHOWN TO HAVE BEEN IN THE PUBLIC INTEREST, AND WITHOUT MALICE.

A CRIMINAL LIBEL DOES NOT HAVE TO BE COMMUNICATED TO A THIRD PARTY: IT IS ENOUGH THAT IT WAS COMMUNICATED TO THE PERSON DEFAMED.

FAQ
IS RIO NOTES PROTECTED BY ABSOLUTE PRIVILEGE.